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Trace History Of Malay Script

HISTORY OF CULTURE | Trace History Of Malay Script | This paper explains that based on the traces of history, the Indonesian language comes from the Malay language Polynesia and is now allied with Austronesian languages. The languages are then referred to as the language of the archipelago.Malay language has a role as written language since the end of the 7th century. In its development, the Riau Malay language became the Indonesian language.

1. Preliminary 
Research J. L. A. Brandes (1884) on the Malay languages of Western Polynesia in the past to prove that those languages came from one parent. Together with the Malay languages of East Polynesia, Western Polynesia Malay language included in the Malay Polynesian language family. Today, the term is known as the Austronesian language family. Ethnic languages in Indonesia, including the Malay language, the heritage language is generally called the languages of the archipelago. 

The study was then followed by a study which Renward Brandstetter in 1887 until 1915 published not less than five works (respectively in 1887, 1893, 1911, 1912, and 1915). This study followed up on by the emergence of research Dyen Isidore (1953) and Bernd Nothofer (1975). Indonesia itself has not been a lot of people doing such research. Harimurti Kridalaksana (1964) is one of the few Indonesian researchers who studied the clustering of eight Western Austronesian languages. Jos Daniel Parera (1965) also conducted research on the grouping of the languages of Sulawesi. 

From the results of their research shows that to achieve or obtain results that are generally referred to as "ancient language", they have to do comparisons on some elements of language are still alive when emphasis ¬ study are performed. Thus it can be understood if the "ancient language" is language that almost certainly never been used. "Ancient Language" is in fact more appropriate if the "language of thought", ie a language that his form in the past allegedly did so. Such results are most likely to appear in his study of the widyabasawan (linguists). 

From the study it can be seen that even though they may know, but generally they ignore other forms of written language which significantly used in the past. Although the excavation efforts in that direction ever done, but the real shape is generally limited to the forms of language used in ancient manuscripts. Thus, if any, tangible forms of business through the Malay language for example, relies on the findings of Malay manuscripts are generally from the 16th century and thereafter. Real form of the previous period to the present has not been much touched. 

Actually, the real form of language studies in the past also made by other research groups. However, because they are not widyabasawan, language forms were not assessed in terms of language. They use the evidence of the past was precisely to other sciences, especially history and widyapurba (archeology). The form language is used solely as historical data or data that are considered very important widyapurba to trace the history of society in the past. Among widyapurbawan specifically to his writing it is the inscription ¬ widyalekawan (epigraphy experts), to those who did pursue the inscription and all the ins ¬ beluknya, except in terms of widyabasa. 

2. Traces History: Inscription 
Relations between China and the archipelago has been going on since the beginning of AD. This evidence, among others, form the findings of Chinese ceramics from the Han Dynasty (200 BC-200 AD), and subsequent dynasties. That relationship never seems to end, at least so that can be followed and concluded from the Chinese news collection edited by W. P. Groeneveldt (1880). In the language problem, the highlights of early Chinese news it is called a language that is used in "the south", ie Kwunlun language.

According to the interpretation of R. Ng. Purbacaraka (1952), which is the language Kwunlun native language is already mixed with Sanskrit. If this opinion is correct, means the period of indigenous languages in Indonesia have been affected by the influence of foreign languages, especially Sanskrit. This assumption makes sense given the relationship between the archipelago with India had already begun to take place since the early days of AD. This has been proven by the discovery of a bronze Buddha statue from Sempaga, South Sulawesi (Bosch, 1933). 

Given the evidence obtained oldest Malay language originated from the year 683 AD, the question arises, is not possible if the meaning of language in Chinese news Kwunlun it is Malay language? This question is reminiscent of the position of Malay as basantara (lingua franca), the trace-trace precisely displayed through research Brandes and other figures that have been mentioned. Although the oldest evidence comes from the Malay language 683 years, in general we can say that the Malays in the early days not much like taking notes.

Until now, the Malay-language inscriptions have been discovered and come from a very long period (683-1500), much less when compared with the number of inscriptions of Java language (even the language of Bali), which comes from the oldest evidence of more later . That's why probably why research on the Malay-language inscriptions were much less when compared with studies of Javanese language inscriptions. We can call Warren D. Barnes (1911), C.O. Blagden (1913, 1924), C. Bodern Kloss (1921), FDK Bosch (1941), T. F. Carey (1933), J. G. de Casparis (1950, 1956), G. Coedes (1930, 1933),  C. Ferrand (1932), H. Kern (1873, 1913), R. A. Kern (1931), N. J. Krom (1912, 1920, 1938), Hugh Low (1880), Major H. S. Paterson (1924), R. Ng. Purbacaraka (1952), PHS. van Ronkel (1924), F. M. Schnitger (1935), P. V. van Stein-Callenfels (1927), and J. W. J. Wellan (1934) as some researchers that we can make an example. 

Related to the Malay-language inscriptions found in the most recent period (after 1960), M. services Bukhari is not likely to forget. He included widyalekawan who worked on the final findings. Bukhari writing about the Malay-language inscription that begins with the words of the inscription Sojomerto (1964), Palas Pasemah (1979), and Manjusnigerha (1980). In addition, Bukhari also has many inscriptions mengalihaksarakan Malay language, but further cultivation had not done. 

3. Traces History: Scripts 
In addition to such inscriptions, traces of the Malay language is also a manuscript, which generally comes from the 16th century until the 18th century or even more recently. The texts are mostly in the form of literary texts "history" and the dictionary (at least a list of words). Research and writing ever done to trace this kind of Malay, among others, by Alessandro Bausani (1960), C. O. Blagden (1930, 1931), C. C.Brown (1952), FSA Clerc (1870-1876), A. Cohen Stuart (1864), P. van der Crab (1878), Johan Doorenbos (1933), G. W. J. Drewes (1955), E. Dulaurier (1845), J.Edel (1938), E. D. Edwards and C. O. Blagden (1930-1932), P. Leopoldo de Eguilas Yanguas (1886), C. A. Gibson-Hil (1953), J. Gonda (1938, 1940), J. R. P. F.Gonggrijp (1876), Fredericu Gueyner (1677), David Haex (1631), J. Heurnius (1650), A.H. Hil (1955), Wr. van Hoevell (1843), Frederick de Houtman (1603), M. Leydekker (1731-1733), John Leyden (1821), W. Linehan (1949), J. Ch. Lorrerus (1688), G. E.Marnison (1951), Th. Marshall (± 1680), R. Mee (1929), C. A. Mees (1935), Raja Ali Haji (1857), A. Reland (1708), J. Roman (1674), PHS. van Ronkel (1896a, 1896b, 1901, 1902, 1908, 1919, 1920, 1928, 1929, 1935), C. C. F. M. le Roux (1939), G. E.Rumphius (1741-1750), A. C. Ruyl (1612), W. G. Shellabear (1898, 1917), A.Spalding (1614), W. F. Stutterheim (1936), A. Teeuw (1959), F. Valentijn (1726), Vocabulaerr (1601), G. H. Werndly (1736, 1737), R. J. Wilkinson (1931), C. Wiltens and S. Danckaerts (1923), and R. O. Winstedt (1938). In more recent times, appeared a number of studies on Malay manuscripts, among others, by Sulastin Sutrisno (1975), A. Ikram (1978), S. W. R. Mulyadi (1979), and Ibrahim Alfian (1981). 

4. Traces History: History 
From the above it appears that the Malay language has a role as a written language at least towards the end of the 7th century. That means that as a spoken language, Malay language would have been much longer in use. In this regard, comparison of results of research widyabasa who came to the conclusion of "a single common ancestor" of the languages in the archipelago may be more emphasized. That is, it is probable that "a single common ancestor" it is the language of thought or ancient language that lowers the Malay languages. 

Until the year 683, so to speak Malay language is still the spoken language fully. This assumption is certainly going to change if in the near future can be found evidence of the use of Malay language and writing earlier than that year. The second half of Malay history took place between the years 683-1500, when the ba ¬ Malay language to obtain the influence of a very Wisesa (dominant) from the Sanskrit. In Chinese news, the language is regarded as the language Kwunlun. During this period, the Malays still prefer to speak orally. This is evidenced by the scarcity of written evidence in the form of inscriptions and manuscripts from that period. 

The next stage is the influence of Arabic or Islamic. At this time, the Malay language Wisesa gain enough influence from Arabic and Islamic culture. At that time, many emerging Malay manuscripts that show the influence of Arabic. In the field of history, the influence is still visible scar in a variety of Malay manuscripts that smells of history.The texts that referred to himself as history, saga, pedigree, origin, or the story. Given these words are of Arabic words and also almost every script starts with the Arabic phrase, then this suggests that at the time of the Arab and Islamic influence is very big on the lives of Malay society and culture, including language. 

The next phase is the period of the Malay language which began to hit the influence of European languages, particularly Dutch and then English. Even interesting enough to say that the Malay language is not only influenced by European languages. Bahasa Melayu fact, can affect foreign languages. According to historical records, as well as influenced by Sanskrit, Tamil, Telugu, Arabic, Chinese, Portuguese, Dutch, English, French, and Spanish, Malay language has also left traces in the languages Campa, Siamese, Arabic, Chinese, Dutch, French, Africa, Portuguese, and English (Teeuw and Emanuels 1961: 38-42). Thus in the process of culture that occurs, the Malay language interacts with other languages that have or are still in touch with the Malay culture. In the works of A. Teeuw is indeed to be found a bibliography that shows the influence of the Malay language of the foreign languages. 

The next development is the "separation" Malay language because of the demands of history. Bahasa Melayu evolved in Peninsular Malaya, Singapore, and a number of other areas. In Indonesia, the Malay language and then "promoted" into the national language, namely the Indonesian language. Thus in terms of actual history shows that lack of true belief which says that Indonesian-Malay language came from Riau.Actually, the Indonesian language comes from the Malay language, which have long served as basantara throughout the archipelago. The role of the Malay language as it is among other basantara dipergunakannya evident from the language in trade agreements and political antarpenguasa "country" Indonesia or among those with a foreign party (Spanish, English, Dutch, and Portuguese). 

5. Endnotes 
In conclusion needs to be submitted that the main source for preparing this short paper is the work of A. Teeuw (with the help of HW Emanuels), which appeared in 1961 and Hasan's work on the bibliography archaeologists Djafar Indonesia between the years 1950 to 1975 (1981). 


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