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Style of temple architecture in Java 8-15 M (Part II)

HISTORY OF CULTURE | Style of temple architecture in Java  8-15 M (Part  II) After growing empire in the eastern part of Java, then the variety of religious activity was switched to the region. Shrine was later built by the time at the locations considered sacred to continue the tradition of Old Classics, such as at the confluence of two streams, upland areas and mountains, and near water sources (springs).

The interesting thing in the poor areas there are still building the temple with Hindu temples Idioms Classic Old-as found in Hindu-Saiva temples in Central Java, the Temple clown. This temple is associated with a bertarikh Dinoyo Inscription 760 M. Described in the inscription of the Kingdom Kanjuruhan, the King who issued the inscription it is Gajayana-Saiva Hindu. In connection with the specific reason that can not be dijerlaskan, Kanjuruhan collapse may still be in the 8th century as well, then the description of its history can not be unknown anymore.

The oldest architectural remains of the Mataram the capital city located in eastern Java century between 10-11 M is actually quite rare, two of which are important is an ancient petirthan, namely Jalatunda (the 10th century AD) located on the western slopes of Mount Penanggungan and Hemisphere is situated on the slopes east (the 11th century AD). Both petirthan until now still did not drain the water, despite being heavy anymore. Judging by the style of architecture, reliefs and statue art patirthan Jalatunda and Hemisphere can be classified as works of architecture of the oldest in East Java after a period Kanjuruhan. The ruins of the temple which was originally a temple Sanggariti patirthan also is located in Batu, Malang. It's just important temples of around the 10th century is no longer neglected, part of the building (the body and the roof has been lost).

Estimated remaining temple was founded by the king Sindok Pu (929-947 AD) is a collapsing temple Lor made of brick in the region Nganjuk now. The remaining temples in the region Kediri Gurah been found in archaeological excavations in 1969, the building is only a foundation course, while the figurine-statue in pretty good condition, the statue of Brahma, Surya, Chandra, and Nandi. The temple buildings are thought to originate from Gurah Kadiri Kingdom (12th century AD), the temple was still berlanggam Classical Old Hindu temple in front of the temple because there are three ancillary temples parent each have a separate foundation. End of the ladder cheek decorated with makara, a common in central Java temples, while the statue-like art style statue statue Singhasari, therefore Soekmono stated that Gurah temple architecture is the connecting link between the Classical style of temple building in Old Java Middle and Junior Classical period in eastern Java (Soekmono 1969: 4-5, 16-17).

Building temples in eastern Java area of ??relatively still mostly intact from the period Singhasari (the 13th century AD) and Majapahit (century AD 14-15). The temples are associated with a period Kingdom of Singhasari which still survive until now is the Temple Sawentar (Blitar), Left, Singhasari, Stupa Sumberawan (Malang), and the temple Jawi (Pasuruan).

As for the temples of the Majapahit era which still can be observed form of the building, although many are no longer intact, are:
1. Temple Sumberjati (Simping) Century 14 M Blitar
2. Temple Ngrimbi (Arimbi) s.d.a Jombang
3. Temple Panataran (Rabut Palah) s.d.a Blitar
4. Temple Surawana s.d.a Kadiri
5. Temple Tegawangi s.d.a Kadiri
6. Little Kali Temple s.d.a Blitar
7. Temple Bangkal s.d.a Mojokerto
8. Temple Ngetos s.d.a Nganjuk
9. Temple Kotes s.d.a Blitar
10. Temple Mount digger s.d.a Pasuruan
11. Temple Jabung s.d.a Probolinggo
12. Temple Kedaton Century 15 M Probolinggo
13. Candi Brahu s.d.a Trowulan / Mojokerto
14. Rat Temple s.d.a s.d.a
15. Bajang queens gate s.d.a s.d.a
16. Arch Wringin Lawang s.d.a s.d.a
17. Candi Pari Century 14 M Sidoarjo
18. Temple Pamotan Century 15 M Mojokerto
19. Temple Dermo s.d.a s.d.a
20. Middle Temple Kesiman s.d.a s.d.a
21. Temple Sanggrahan Century 14 M Tulungagung
22. Temple Mirigambar s.d.a s.d.a
23. Temple Bayalango s.d.a s.d.a
24. Punden terraces in STEPS Century 15-16 M Mojokerto

Based on the form of architecture that still survive until now, the Hindu-Buddhist shrine in East Java that develops between century-13-16 M can be divided into five styles, namely (1) Style Singhasari, (2) Style Brahu Temple, (3) Style Candi Jago, (4) "Batur Temple", and (5) punden terraces. For more details, characteristics of each style are as follows:

1.Gaya Singhasari
So named because the form of architecture that is characteristic of this style began to emerge in the days of empire Singhasari and continue to survive until the time of Majapahit. Prominent features of the Style Singhasari are:

  1. The main temple building is located in the middle of the yard, or in the middle that is often not very precise.
  2. Building a temple is divided into three parts consisting of the foot (upapitha), body (stambha), and roof-shaped high-rise with levels gradually narrowed to the top. The entire temple is made of durable materials, such as stone, brick, or a mixture of stone and brick.
  3. Space or the main chamber is at the center of the building, there are also niches in the wall outside the temple where the gods put the statue.

Examples Singhasari style is: Sawentar temple, Kidal, Jawi, Singhasari (a privilege), number of Panataran, Kali Little, Ngetos, and Bangkal.

2.Gaya Brahu
Brahu is the name of the brick temple located on the site Trowulan, forms the building is unique, because the new architecture emerged in the era of Majapahit. In the past both in the era of ancient Mataram Singhasari or architectural forms as yet unknown. Can be viewed as a separate architectural style because in addition to Temple Brahu similar temples still exist in the same era. Style characteristics Brahu are:

  • The foot of the temple consists of several terraces (levels), terrace above terrace narrower than the bottom).
  • The temple where the main chamber was set up in the back of the schematics are essentially rectangular shape.
  • The entire building is made of durable material, usually brick.

Includes group is Temple Style Brahu Brahu, Jabung, and Mount digger. In the meantime in the Padang Lawas, North Sumatra there is a group of sacred buildings in Style Brahu anyway, named by the Biaro Bahal of more than 3 buildings. Thus it can be estimated that the Biaro-Biaro on ^ Back to the future development of Majapahit was established in anyway.

3.Gaya Jago
Jago Temple located in Malang, statue-art berlanggam Singhasari statue with the figure is flanked by a pair of lotus coming out of the cob, but not the same style building with two kinds of styles that have been mentioned earlier. Given the different forms of the building with two other styles, then Candi Jago along with several other similar temples belong to the art style of architecture itself. For simplicity's architectural style with a style called Jago, with Candi Jago as the best examples. Important characteristics Style Jago is:

  1. Foot terraced temple 1, 2 or 3 with a rectangular ground-plan.
  2. The main room was set up in the middle of the terrace top or shifted slightly to the rear terrace top.
  3. The roof is encountered again, allegedly made of perishable materials (fibers, bamboo, wood, etc.), forms a towering terraced in ancient Javanese language known as prasadha.
Such forms are known in Bali and are used to shade the building Meru, pelinggih and pesimpangan in the temple complex. Temple building belonging Style Jago is: Candi Jago, Temple Parent Panataran, Sanggrahan, and the Middle Kesiman.

4. "Batur Temple"
So named because its shape is only a building so as to form a terrace like siti inggil or shelf. Now the only remaining shelf alone with stairs on one side, schematics berberntuk square bias and may also be rectangular. At the surface of the shelf there is usually a sacred object, among other phallus-Yoni, persajian altar, the censer shaped small temples or statues are also embodiments figures who have died. Examples of such temples is the Temple Kedaton in Probolinggo, Temple Kedaton in Trowulan, Temple Miri Pictures, Tegawangi, Surawana, Papoh (Kotes), and Pasetran on the northern slope of Mount Penanggungan.

5. Punden terraces
Is a patio terraced buildings rising levels of leaning on the mountain slope. The size of the terrace has narrowed to the top, the number of terraces generally 3 and at the top of the top terrace stood the altars persajian numbering three altars (1 parent altar altar flanked by two companions on either side. Stairs rising to the top terrace are located on the middle terraces punden , there is a possibility in advance on either side of the stairs stands a row of statues leading to the top punden containing the altar without any statues. Examples of good form during the Majapahit punden terraces located on the western slopes of Mount Penanggungan, population-punden punden call it a temple as well, such as Temple headman (Antiquities # 1), Temple Wayang (Kep. No.VIII), Temple Sprott (Kep.No.17a), Temple Yuddha (Kep.No.LX), and Temple Kendalisada (Kep.No.LXV). Apart Mount STEPS there are also several terraces on the eastern slope punden Mount Arjuno, it's just wall-terrace terrace composed of natural stones, without first molded into blocks of stone.

Classification of the architecture of the temples in East Java is based on observations of the remaining buildings that still exist today, perhaps in the past many more forms of architecture that is more unique and interesting, just not left his form again. There is also the temple can not be classified into any architectural forms, such as a building Candi Pari wide and high, similar to the shrine contained in Champa (Indo-China). Maybe there just before Champa influence building style that goes into Majapahit, it seems in line with the news that tradition says that the king of Majapahit had married a princess of Champa. Other buildings are also unique is the Temple near Temple Pari Well, so named because its main space in the form of an aqueous wellbore. The well has a counterpart at Temple Temple Sanggariti in Batu, Malang, but from a much different chronology.

So, Religious activities at the Javanese Hindu-Buddhist past of course, quite passionate, as evidenced by the discovery of many relics of the sacred buildings of the two religions were both in the central or eastern Java. The experts of archeology and ancient history have agreed to state that the emergence of various works of sacred architecture is actually consistent with the existence of contemporary royal center. When the center of the kingdom in Central Java, the temples of Hindu-Buddhism was built in the area, and when the centers of the kingdom emerged in East Java, the construction of the temples were mostly done in East Java.

Architectural style of building the temple was the center of the kingdom of Mataram was located in Central Java, is based more on his religious background. Therefore there is a Hindu temple Idioms-Idioms Saiva and Mahayana Buddhist Temple. Another case when the centers of the kingdom has been in East Java, the difference in the style of the sacred building was not based on differences in religion anymore, either Hindu or Buddhist temple architectural style of the same, the thing that distinguishes it lies only in the statues that used to be buried in it. Maybe the fact is in line with the concept of Shiva-Buddha that is actually the highest in essence there is actually no longer a difference between Shiva and Buddha, therefore no need for a distinction is expressly against the form of sacred buildings.

One important issue that needs further study is what is happening in the area of ??central Java when Kadiri, Singhasari and developing Majapahit in East Java?, Whether Central Java quiet of religious activity?, Is still inhabited by the population?, Why is there no historical source and archeology are found in Central Java between century-11-14?. Thus there is an interesting problem to be disclosed in the future, that is not possible in the old area of ??central Java former seat of the dynasty was suddenly quiet, when the kingdoms developed in eastern Java. Penelisika to explain the issue was still open, and invited experts who are interested to explore them further.

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