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Style of temple architecture in Java 8-15 M (Part I)

HISTORY OF CULTURE Style of temple architecture in Java  8-15 M (Part I) | The temple is actually one of the buildings keagaamaan only ever used once when Hindu-Buddhist religion spread embraced ancient Javanese society. Based on the evidence can be seen that the development of Hindu-Buddhist culture in Java century lasted about 8-15 M. In pembabakan history of Javanese culture, this time called the Classical era.

Named to the Classical era because of the three parameters, namely: Hindu-Buddhist Period is the period of cultural development of significant milestones that were not previously known in this era, such as the alphabet, the royal system, monumental architecture, art, the arrangement of the region, and more. The results of the cultural achievements that continue to remain unknown until now and can be used as a reference for the development of contemporary society. For example the use of ancient Javanese language that refers to the Sanskrit language, the stories of Mahabharata and Ramayana, the hero concept, the concept of a good ruler, ideal woman, prosperous society, and others.

Through penelisikan artefaktualnya evidence against the Hindu-Buddhist era in Java is divided into two periods, namely (a) Classical Old age (century AD 80-10), and (b) Young Classical era (Century 11-15 M). Classical Age Old grow in areas of central Java, along with the development center of the kingdom in the region. Kingdom is known in those days was the capital of Ancient Mataram move initially in Mdang i Poh Pitu, then moved to Mdang Watu Galuh i, and i Mdang Mamratipura. The Young Classical era. Ancient Kingdom of Mataram dynasty Sailendra often associated with the Mahayana Buddhist, but there are also among scholars who claim that the kingdom was ruled by king Sanjaya offspring ("Sanjayavamsa") who embraced Hinduism. The latest theory states that ancient Mataram controlled by members Sailendravamsa, among its members some Mahayana Buddhists and others who embraced the Hindu-Saiva.

In about the 10th century AD, Wawa kings of Old Mataram kings to move the position of eastern Java, the reason for the move was still a concern to experts and there has been no word broke up mutually acceptable. The hypothesis has been put forward by experts, some have claimed that the move was because of the plague, the people who fled to eastern Java because kings ruled with a cruel period, displacement was triggered because of an attack of Srivijaya, natural disasters caused by the eruption Mount Merapi, as well as a new explanation stating that the transfer of the capital was actually looking for a more ideal Mahameru in East Java (Munandar 2004).

Then further developed kingdoms in East Java, beginning with the reign of Pu Sindok Isananya dynasty. In Airlangga reign (1019-1042 AD) the capital of the Mataram kingdom in Wwatan Mas (the 11th century AD) was forced to split into two: Janggala (Kahuripan) and Panjalu (Kadiri) are thousands of cities in Daha. Kadiri kingdom which is then further role in history throughout the 12th century AD Following the royal Singhasari that develops between the year 1222-1292 AD which was built by Ken Angrok. Due to the attacks of Glang-glang Jayakatwang ruler against the king last Singhasari, namely Krtanagara (1268-1292), the kingdom is crumbling, and then through a long struggle Krtarajasa Jayawarddhana (Raden Wijaya) Wilwatikta stand. In Rajasanagara reign (1350-1389 AD) Majapahit ruler transformed into the archipelago, Majapahit was the last Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms in Java, developed for about 200 years (1293-1521 AD).

Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms that developed in Java and go beyond the centuries there are many to leave "tracks", but there are also a few have the archeological record. Ancient Mataram Kingdom, Singhasari and Majapahit, including a lot of passing various Hindu and Buddhist religious monument. Such monuments are of concern in this study is the temple which is one of the important religious monuments. Together with the temple there are other monuments are considered sacred petirthaan (patirthan), cave hermitage, and the altar persajian only a limited number. Therefore, the temple remains the subject of interesting study because they were many and have unikum architecture, the temple will never be finished discussed from various aspects, one aspect is the style of architecture.

Borobudur viewed from the northwest corner of the yard

Soekmono R. (1997) an expert on Indonesia enshrinement never held a brief review of building temples in Java, it is stated that the building of the temple in Java has two styles, namely Idioms Idioms Central Java and East Java. According Idioms of Central Java, among others, have the following important features: (a) the form of fat building, (b) the roof terraces, steps, (c) wicket doors and niches decorated with Kala-Makara, (d) arise rather high reliefs and paintings naturalist, and (e) the location of the temple in the middle of the page.

The temples feature of East Java Idioms are important are: (a) Temple Brahu, slender form of the building, (b) the roof is a combination of levels, (c) Makara does not exist, and the doors and niches just above threshold are given a head of Kala, (d) arises a little relief and symbolic paintings resemble leather puppets, and (e) lies the temple of the back page (Soekmono 1997: 86).

Similarly important traits expressed by Soekmono other characteristics besides the very relative nature due regard to the direction toward the building and materials used. As an initial study Soekmono opinion that it is important to base the next footing when about to examine the architectural style of building temples in Java. Actually, every grain traits that have been put forward by Soekmono be explained further that it becomes sharper understanding. For example portly shape of the building owned by the temples of Central Java Idioms, the impression that occur due to the foot of the temple floor where people walk around have a wide space, with the other terms have a wide pradaksinapatha. Form of fat also occurs as a result of building the roof temple in Central Java Idioms are not high, the roof is terraced, and only amounted to 3 levels including kemuncaknya. Compared with the number of temples in East Java Idioms roof over three levels and each level gradually decreases until the peak, as well as narrow pradaksinapathanya only fit for one person only, therefore the impression of a slim-shaped building.

More detailed explanations are also possible in terms of head of Kala, but paired with a makara (mythical creatures were a combination of elephant and fish, [gajamina]), generally Kala on the temples of Java was described without the lower jaw (no chin), often also do not have a pair of claws, and the impressive face of a lion symbol of the victory of the face (kirttimukha). While Kala in the temples of East Java Idioms illustrated by having the lower jaw (chin), clearly has a pair of claws on either side of her head in the sense of evil that threatens to disrupt the sanctity of the temple, the temple several times Singhasari and Majapahit Kala heads fitted a pair of horns and a pair of fangs protruding from his left cheek and right. When no longer paired with Makara frame, but with a snake or dragon that is placed on the right and left side of Kala. In the depiction of relief Kala akin to a pair of deer's head (mrga) facing outwards. In the end the impression is obtained if the notice Kala temples of East Java is a giant head, instead of a lion's face. In terms of sculpting reliefs that decorate the walls of the temple, if listened to carefully there is a difference in more detail again. Indeed, in principle, in the temples of Central Java Idioms high relief carving and are naturalists, but there are a number of other characteristics that are more specific.

Thus, if the characteristics described in full reliefs in the temples of Central Java are:
  1. High relief carving
  2. Naturalistic depiction of nature
  3. The thickness of ½ to ¾ of sculpture media (stone blocks)
  4. There are areas left blank on the panel
  5. Human figures and animals face directed towards the observer (enface)
  6. The story comes from the literature reference India
  7. The theme of the story is generally the epic (epic)
  8. Fully sculpted scenes stories from beginning to end.
  9. Regarding the characteristics of the depiction on the reliefs of the temples of East Java Idioms are:
  10. Low relief carving
  11. The depiction of symbolic figures, human figures such as shadow puppets
  12. Inscribed only on ¼-media thickness (stone / brick)
  13. Entire panels filled with various decorations, such as there is "fear of an empty field".
  14. Human figures and animals directed his face to the side facing
  15. Reference story of Old Javanese literature, in addition to several adaptations of literary works of India.
  16. The theme is generally romantic story (about love)
  17. Relief stories are fragmentary, incomplete only certain episodes from the complete story (Munandar 2003: 28-29).

In this lies the main temple complex in an enshrinement, Soekmono stated that the main temple building on the Idioms of Central Java was located in the center of the page, while the main temple buildings in the complex with the enshrinement of East Java Idioms located in the courtyard at the rear. Soekmono explains:

"The building of the temple should be presented that the temple Roro Jonggrang wants all your attention to the center pulled toward the sky (the location of heaven where dwell the gods), while the Temple Panataran requires the deployment of view horizontally (which is actually a flat projection of a vertical arrangement) with the aim of directing attention to the location of ancestors in the mountains "(Soekmono 1986: 237). Actually indirectly Soekmono has explained the different functions between the building of temples in the Old Classics, founded in central Java and the temples of the Classical Youth in East Java. That building temples of the Classical Old established for the purpose of the rites of worship to the gods, while the temples in the Classical era, especially Young and Majapahit Singhasari intends to dedicated to the worship of ancestors has diperdewa. Then the building of the temple is clearly a religious monument is sacred because diperuntuk as a medium to "communicate" with the Supernatural (superhuman Beings).

As a sacred temple buildings is not strictly follow the religious rules, meaning that not every building the temple should be established uniformly. These buildings have a form different architectures, although having the same religious background. Being different architecture that is of interest to be discussed further, because of these differences actually indicate the presence of distinctiveness. It is therefore commonly touted that the building of the temple has features that are not found in other temples. For example privilege Bima Temple in Dieng is the roof, the roof is decorated with forms such as fruit keben (amalaka) oeleh depressed and therefore flattened his form. Another temple has another feature and so every temple has its own privileges.

Based on architectural form, the actual temples in central Java region can be divided into two kinds of religious styles berlatarbelakangkan breath, ie (1) Hindu temples-Saiva and (2) Bauddha temples. Although in principle the temples that have similarities, but there are many differences too interesting to be discussed further. Similarities between building Hindu temples-Saiva and Bauddha in Central Java that was established between the century-80-10 M include:
  • generally have a foundation in the form of pitting
  • vertically composed of three parts, namely, legs, body, and the roof of the building
  • has a main room in the middle of the building
  • equipped with a number of niches that are sometimes enlarged into space
  • staircase-shaped cheek curls weak
  • there is a combined frames lotus, half-circle, and the average
  • ornament is a decoration which has always been known Kala and Makara.

Some similarities can be found either in the temples of Hindu or Buddhist, as if it has been a feature of the architecture for building the temple at any time. As an example in point b, both the Hindu or Buddhist temple vertical division could always be found, namely (1) the existence of the foundation and base of the temple in Hinduism is a symbol of nature Bhurloka, in Buddhist temples of this section is seen as a reflection layer Kamadhatu life. (2) The body of the temple where bersemayamnya good god statues in the middle chamber (primary) or recesses (parsvadewata) in Hinduism is a symbol of world Bhuvarloka, whereas in Buddhism can be viewed as a reflection of Rupadhatu walks of life, and ( 3) Svarloka roof of the temple is a symbol in Hinduism, which is the natural life of the gods.

As for the roof is a symbol of Buddhism Arupadhatu, an atmosphere without any form, completely empty (sunyata). So based on the architecture division vertically either Hindu or Buddhist temples layer 3 represents the actual world, the world's ugliness, the world is quite good, and virtue the world completely. This is stated explicitly in the building of the temple, especially in terms of the application of ornament, ornaments because there are typically describe a particular world. Figures eg portrayal of celestial creature floating in the clouds, mythical beasts, Kalpataru tree, relief story reflecting layer specific nature, and so on. Before discussing cirri important Hindu temples, the following listed first important Hindu temples in central Java region. With the list can be known a number of Hindu temples which the building is still standing, although there is no longer complete.

The temples are are:
1. + Group Dieng temple the 8th century Banjarnegara
2. + Group of Songo Temple Gedong the 8th century Ambarawa
3. Temple Mount in 732 AD Magelang Wukir
4. Temple Pringapus + the 9th century Waterford
5. + Group of Temple Sengi the 9th century Magelang
6. Temple Selagriya + Magelang the 9th century
7. Sambisari temple + the 9th century Sleman
8. Temple Kedulan + the 9th century Sleman
9. Temple Morangan + the 9th century Sleman
10. Barong temple + the 9th century Sleman
11. Ijo Temple + the 9th century Sleman
12. Candi Merak + the 10th century Klaten
13. Lawang temple + the 10th century Boyolali
14. Candi Sari + the 10th century Boyolali
15. Enshrinement Prambanan year 856 AD Sleman

Actually there are also Hindu temples runtuhannya living alone, because it can not be expected to return its original full form. For example in Waterford Gondosuli Temple, Temple Ngempon in Ambarawa, and Retno Temple in Magelang. Surely in the future is predicted to find other Hindu temples in Central Java region, especially around the mountain or the mountain, remember there is a strong concept that in mountainous regions that the gods dwell, so the builders of the temple is expected to establish many temples in the plains area and high mountains.

Based on observations of a number of Hindu temples in Central Java can be known a number of characteristics possessed by a Hindu temple buildings, namely:
  • In the center of the foundation there are sinks (cistern) a place to store pendaman
  • Pradaksinapatha floor is not too wide at the edges there is no balustrade (vedika).
  • There are five niches on the exterior wall, a niche on each side wall and two small niches on either side of the door (Mahesasuramardini contains statues of Durga, Ganesha, Rsi Agastya, Mahakala, and Nandisvara)
  • If a building complex, it consists of a main temple are dealing with three ancillary temples. Ancillary temples center contains the statue of Nandi.
  • In the center of the main chamber there is a Linga-Yoni, Yoni well shut up booths located on the floor and penetrate the foundation.
  • Crow's roof-top point of the form of small temples, kemuncaknya ratna-shaped motif.

Similarly, several important features found on buildings of architectural styles-Saiva Hindu temple located in central Java. These features can largely be found in almost all buildings-Saiva Hindu temples, but some are only found in two buildings, in addition to the two buildings can not be found traits that are intended. For example in the environment enshrinement Dieng and Gedong Songo, every temple is not equipped with 3 ancillary temple in front of him, but there is only one building is a rectangular diagram, in such cases etrjadi Arjuno temple opposite the Temple Semar. In the complex there Gedong Songo Songo Temple Gedong II dealing with the structure of the foot of the temple berdenah rectangular, may be a temple formerly perwaranya. Gedong Songo Temple I, actually there are no niches on the outside, and the visible presence of the rest of the balustrade at the edge pradaksinapathanya, so similar to the architecture of Buddhist temples. Just because the other temples in the enshrinement Gedong Songo is breath-Saiva Hindu religion, the temple Gedong Songo I was classified as Saiva Hindu temples as well.

In the meantime there is also an important Buddhist temples in central Java region, temples, there are interesting from the point of architecture is seen in addition to the stupa of Borobudur is second to none in the world anymore. Borobudur Temple is actually a combination of form punden staircase decorated with stupas, stupa at the top pundek as if transformed into a crown for a typical staircase punden prehistoric shrine Indonesia (Wirjosuparto 1964: 53-54). Buddhist temples there that have a rectangular floor plan in a large size (Sari Temple, Plaosan Lor, and Banyunibo), whereas only a small Hindu temple alone (Gedong Songo Temple Semar and IIIC). There are also Buddhist temples that are equipped with many ancillary, such as Temple Barn, Sewu, Plaosan Lor, and Kidal, whereas only the Prambanan Hindu temple are equipped with many ancillary. General description of enshrinement of the Buddha in central Java, among others:

1. Enshrinement Ngawen + Magelang the 9th century
2. + Kalasan the 8th century Sleman
3. Sari Temple (temple prodding) + the 8th century Sleman
4. Borobudur stupa + Magelang the 9th century
5. + Pawon the 9th century Magelang
6. + Mendut the 9th century Magelang
7. Granary enshrinement + the 9th century Sleman
8. Bubrah Temple around the year 782 AD Sleman
9. Enshrinement Sewu (Manjusrigrha) in 792 AD Sleman
10. Enshrinement Plaosan Lor + 10th-century Klaten
11. + Enshrinement South Plaosan the 10th century Klaten
12. Temple Sajiwan + the 9th century Klaten
13. Enshrinement Banyunibo + the 9th century Sleman
14. Stupa + Dawangsari the 10th century Sleman

After discussing several important Buddhist temple in central Java region, relative chronology, and its location right now, then consider some important cirri of Buddhist temples. Named important because that's characteristic is generally present at Buddhist temples, namely:

Important characteristics of a Buddhist temple:
  1. The main temple building is surrounded by ancillary temples in the vicinity
  2. Pradaksinapatha floor is relatively wide and at the edges has a balustrade (vedika)
  3. In the body of the temple there is a see-through holes as if it serves as a vent, but there are recesses in the outer wall
  4. Having a stupa-shaped building components, especially in the roof
  5. Equipped with statues that are bauddha
  6. In the temple chamber, attached to the rear wall there is a "stage persajian", to put the statue.
  7. Not have encountered as well in Hindu temple

In some large temple enshrinement page hardened with a carpet of stone blocks, it can be interpreted that in the past never happened rituals that take up a lot of activity on the page. Thus, if considered carefully there is a difference between Hindu temples and Buddhist Saiva-Mahayana in the Old Classical central Java. The difference is what might be called style or styles, so in the middle between Java century 80-10 temples built in two styles, the style of Hindu temple or Buddhist temple style.

R. Soekmono opinion in this case can be developed further, that the central Javanese temple style turned out to be divided into 2 again. Actually the two styles that have experienced symptoms of fusion in the Prambanan complex, because the characteristics of Hindu and Buddhist temples can be found together in clusters Prambanan temple. In line with the opinion JGde Casparis marriage finally took place between members of the "family Sanjaya" of Hindu and Buddhist Sailendravamsa members. Marriage of two families is then realized by building a patterned two holy religion, namely Prambanan or Sivagrha enshrinement in the year 856 AD (Sumadio 1984).


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