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Padeglangan Kingdom of Banten (Keraton Surosowan)

HISTORY OF CULTUREPadeglangan Kingdom of Banten (Keraton Surosowan) | Pandeglang, Surosowan Palace is a palace in Banten. This palace was built around the year 1522-1526 during the reign of the first Sultan of Banten, Sultan Maulana Hasanudin and reportedly also involve building experts from the Netherlands, namely Lucasz Cardeel Hendrik, a Dutch architect who converted to Islam who holds the Prince Wiraguna. 2m high wall around the palace area of  approximately less than 3 hectares. Surowowan like a solid fortress with bastions Netherlands (diamond-shaped corner of the fortress) at the four corners of the building. Buildings within the palace walls no longer intact. Leaving only ruins the walls and foundation rooms berdenah numbering tens of square.

Surosowan palace has three entrance gates, each of which is located on the north, east, and south. However, the south entrance was closed with a wall, do not know why. At the center of the palace there is a building containing pool water is green, full of algae and moss. In this palace are also plenty of room in the palace associated with water or a bath-tub (petirtaan). One of the famous is the former garden pond, named Bale Kambang Denok Rara. There is also a shower to bath so-called "shower mas".

Swimming Rara Denok rectangular with a length of 30 meters and 13 meters wide and 4.5 meters depth pool. There are two sources of water in the wells and Surosowan Tasikardi Lake is located about two kilometers from Surosowan.

Here is a note made by Cecelia Eka Permana Archaeological Studies relating to the Sultan of Banten Lama Surosowan, notes that have been loaded in Makara, Social Humanities Vol 8 No 3 December 2004 is interesting because on the basis of research results and analysis based on an ancient map, palace Surosowan has undergone at least five stages of development. From the data stripping and excavation of this palace is now only able to show the existence of two phases of development. Based on the remaining tiles in every room, size and pattern reconstruction obtained pairs of tiles in each room in the palace complex. Also obtained data to reconstruct the pattern of masonry walls and foundations of buildings on buildings at the palace complex. Meanwhile, a known function of the building is home to sultans and their families, wards receive guests, Roro Denok pool, and shower baths Mas.

Kraton is a building that holds a very important role for a kingdom. Like the palace in general in Java, Surosowan palace also has a double meaning, namely as residential buildings the sultan and his family and other royal devices, and as the center of the kingdom-the kingdom of Banten in this case. Following the general pattern of urban development in the Islamic kingdom of Indonesia, Surosowan palace is also the center of the city of Banten. Similarly, the plaza is located on the north palace, the Great Mosque of Banten in the west of the palace, Karangantu markets in the east, and the port located on the north.

Surosowan palace has been amended several times. Based on ancient maps is known that on a map of the oldest (1596), the palace is still very simple Surosowan described as a single building surrounded by a fence and some buildings are located south of the square. Pata map of 1624, the palace Surosowan already described in the form of buildings and surrounded by terraces and terraced houses. Similar picture was found on a map of 1726, which saw the main building has a bottom of the palace staircase-building steps, and getting onto the roof of the smaller tapered, only the larger size of the palace.

Sultan Haji assisted Netherlands. In the reign of Sultan Haji (1672-1687) the palace was rebuilt on the ruins of the palace of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa been razed to the ground in 1680-1681. In 1808 the Sultan of Banten dispute with the Dutch. In that year Surosowan palace was destroyed by the Dutch under the leadership of Daendels. The destruction took place until 1832. Building materials are taken from the palace Surosowan for reuse in other Dutch buildings. Thus, the present palace Surosowan were left over from the remnants of its destruction.

From this study indicate that based on the analysis of ancient maps, Surosowan palace has undergone at least five stages of development. From stripping and excavation data can only demonstrate the existence of two phases of development based on indications of overlapping structures. Based on the remaining floors in each room are made of materials known to tile or cement berglasur red tiles, and brick, and can be reconstructed size, and pattern pair in each room in the palace complex. In addition, all data obtained to reconstruct the pattern of masonry walls and foundations of buildings on buildings at the palace complex. Meanwhile, based on field observations were also obtained assuming some of the functions of buildings that have been displayed, such as shelter sultan, wards receive guests, Roro Denok garden pond, and shower baths Mas to the relatives of the palace.

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