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Origin of the Dayak Tribe In Indonesia

HISTORY OF CULTUREOrigin of the Dayak Tribe In Indonesia | About the origin of the Dayak tribes, many accepted theory is the theory of the Chineseimmigration from Yunnan Province in Southern China. Yunan population immigrated  massive (in small groups) in the estimate in 3000-1500 BC (BC). Some of them wander into Tumasik and the Malay peninsula, before the territory of Indonesia. Some other past Hainan, Taiwan and the Philippines.

In the first wave of migration by several experts called the proto-Malay, come and weddid negroid groups. While the second wave, in larger quantities called Deutero-Malays. Deutero-Malay migrants inhabit the coastal region then called the tribes of Borneo and Malay. Proto-and Deutero-Malay Malay actually comes from the same country.

According H.TH. Fisher, migrations from Asia occurred in the first phase Tretier era. Asian continent and the island of Borneo is part of the country that are still together, which allows the Mongoloid race from Asia to wander through the mainland and arrived in Borneo to cross the mountains now called the mountains "Muller-Schwaner '. Dayak tribe of Borneo is the true population. But after the Malays from Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula came, they increasingly retreat into.
Not to mention the arrival of the Bugis, Makassar, and the Javanese Majapahit Empire in the heyday. Dayak tribes living scattered throughout the region of the long span of time, they have spread through the rivers down to the downstream and then inhabit the coast of the island of Borneo. This tribe is composed of several tribes, each of which has different properties and behavior.

Dayak tribe had to build an empire. In the Dayak oral tradition, often called "Java Nansarunai Usak", ie, a kingdom which was destroyed by the Dayak Nansarunai Majapahit, which is estimated to occur between the years 1309-1389. [2] These events resulted in recessive Dayak tribes and dispersed, some into the countryside. The next big flows occur at the time of Islamic influence from the kingdom of Demak berasala with the influx of Malay traders (circa 1608).

Most of the Dayak tribe embraced Islam and no longer recognize him as the Dayak, but calls himself a Malay or Banjar. While the Dayak people who reject Islam back down the river, into the hinterland of Central Kalimantan, have settled in areas of Tangi Wood, Amuntai, Margasari, Watang Amanda, Labuan Amas and Watang Balangan. Sebagain longer continue to push into the jungle. Muslim Dayaks are mostly located in South Kalimantan and some Kotawaringin, one of the famous Sultan of the Sultanate of Banjar is Gastric Mangkurat was actually a Dayak (Ma'anyan or Ot Danum).

Not only from the country, other nations also came to Borneo. Chinese nation is expected to start coming to Borneo during the Ming Dynasty in 1368-1643. From the manuscript lettered in kanji mentioned that the city's first visit is ppBanjarmasin]]. But it remains unclear whether the Chinese people came to the era of Banjarmasin (under Majapahit hegemony) or in the Islamic era.

The arrival of the Chinese nation does not result in displacement Dayak population and has no direct effect because it directly because they only trade, especially with the kingdom of Banjar in Banjarmasin. They do not trade directly with the Dayaks. Chinese relics are still kept by some Dayak tribes like malawen dishes, pots (jars) and ceramic equipment.

Since the beginning of the fifth century the Chinese people have arrived in Borneo. In the XV century, King Yung Lo sent a large army to the south (including the Archipelago) under the leadership of Ho Chang, and returned to China in 1407, having previously stopped to Java, Borneo, Malacca, Manila and Solok. In 1750, Sultan Mempawah accept Chinese people (from Brunei) who is looking for gold. Chinese people are also carrying merchandise such as opium, silk, glassware such as plates, cups, bowls and jars.

Distribution Sub-sub tribe Dayak

Due to strong migration flows of migrants, the Dayak increasingly desperate and ultimately chose to go to the forest interior. As a result, the Dayak to be scattered and become its own sub-ethnic groups.

The Dayak groups, divided into sub-sub-tribe which numbers approximately 405 sub (by JU Lontaan, 1975). Each sub tribe Dayak in Borneo island have customs and cultures are similar, referring to the sociology kemasyarakatannya and differences in customs, culture, and language characteristics. Past society that is now called the Dayak tribe, inhabiting the coastal areas and rivers in each of their settlements.

Ethnic Dayaks of Borneo according to an anthropology JU Lontaan, 1975 in book Customary Law and Customs of West Kalimantan, consists of 6 major tribes and 405 sub-tribes small, which spread across Kalimantan.

Today Dayak tribes are divided into six major clusters, namely: [Kenyah-Kayan-Bahau], [Ot Danum], [Iban], [Murut], [Klemantan] and [Punan]. The six clusters were subdivided into approximately 405 sub-clusters. Although divided into hundreds of sub-clumps, Dayak ethnic groups have a common cultural traits are typical. The characteristics of these be the deciding factor if a subsuku in Borneo can be incorporated into the Dayak groups. These characteristics is a long house, the result of material culture such as pottery, [saber], chopsticks, beliong (ax Dayak), views of nature, livelihoods (shifting), and the art of dance. Dayak settlements are usually called: [Lewu] / [dust], while the settlements Malay ethnic group is called: [continent] / [banua]. In sub-districts in Kalimantan, which is the Dayak indigenous territories led by a Chief who led the indigenous Dayak tribes one or two different, but in the lush countryside Malay tribes there is no indigenous leadership system unless the local kings.

According to Prof. Lambut from the University of Gastric Mangkurat, racially, Dayak people can be grouped into:
  • Dayak [Mongoloid]
  • Dayak [Malay | Malayunoid]
  • Dayak [Australoid | Autrolo-Melanosoid]
  • Dayak [Heteronoid]

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