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HISTORY OF CULTURENUSANTARA HISTORY (1942-1945) The period of Japanese occupation in Indonesia started in 1942 and ended on August 17, 1945 along with the proclamation of Indonesian independence by Sukarno and M. Hatta on behalf of the Indonesian nation. In May 1940, the beginning of World War II, the Netherlands was occupied by Nazi Germany. Dutch East Indies declared a state of alert and in July divert exports to Japan to the United States and Britain. Negotiations with Japan aimed at securing supplies of aircraft fuel failed in June 1941, and Japan began the conquest of Southeast Asia in December of that year.

In the same month, factions from Sumatra to receive Japanese aid to bring about a revolution against Dutch rule. The last Dutch troops defeated Japan in March 1942. In July 1942, Sukarno accepted Japan's offer to hold a public campaign and formed a government that can also provide answers to the needs of the Japanese military. Sukarno, Mohammad Hatta, and the Kyai decorated by the Emperor of Japan in 1943. However, the experience of mastery of the Japanese in Indonesia varies greatly, depending on where one lives and social status of the person.

For those who live in areas that are considered important in the war, they suffered torments, involved sex slavery, arbitrary detention and the death penalty, and other war crimes. The Dutch and mixed Dutch-Indonesian is the mastery of the target in Japan. Japanese form of preparation for independence BPUPKI (Investigation Agency Efforts Preparation of Indonesian Independence) or Dokuritsu Junbi Cosakai, in Japanese. The agency is in charge of preparations to form the pre-independence and make the basic state and replaced by PPKI who prepared the independence of their duties.

In October 1941, General Hideki Tojo replaced Konoe as prime minister of Japan. Actually, until the end of 1940, Japanese military leaders do not want a fight several countries at once, but since mid-1941 they saw, that the United States, Britain and the Netherlands must be faced at once, if they want to control natural resources in Southeast Asia. Especially after the U.S. launched an oil embargo, which they so desperately need, both for the industry in Japan, as well as for the war.

Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, Commander of the Japanese Navy, developed a strategy of war is very courageous, that is putting all the power its fleet to two major operations. The whole potential of the Japanese Navy includes six aircraft carriers (aircraft carrier), 10 battleships, 18 heavy cruisers, 20 light cruisers, four ships carrying supplies, 112 destroyers, 65 submarines and fighter aircraft 2274. The first force, which is 6 aircraft carriers, 2 battleships, 11 destroyers and more than 1,400 combat aircraft, dated December 7, 1941, will suddenly attack the United States Pacific Fleet base at Pearl Harbor in the Hawaiian Islands. While the second power, the rest of the Navy forces at their disposal, supports the Army in Operation South, namely the attack on the Philippines and Malaya / Singapore, which will continue to Java. Forces that were deployed to Southeast Asia is 11 Infantry Division, supported by seven tank regiments and 795 combat aircraft. The whole operation will be completed within 150 days. Admiral Nagumo Chuichi assigned to lead the fleet to attack Pearl Harbor.

Sunday morning on December 7, 1941, 360 aircraft consisting of a carrier torpedo bombers and fighter planes dispatched in two waves. The bombing of Pearl Harbor was successfully sank two large warships and damaged six other battleships. Besides the Japanese bombing also destroyed 180 tesebut American fighter aircraft. More than 2330 American soldiers were killed and more than 1140 injured. But three American aircraft carriers survived, because at that time was not in Pearl Harbor. Dated December 8, 1941, the United States Congress declared war on Japan.

Pacific War was a major effect on the independence movement in the countries of East Asia, including Indonesia. The purpose Hndia Japan invaded and occupied the Netherlands is to master the natural resources, especially petroleum, in order to support Japan's war potential and support the industry. Java was designed as a supply center for all military operations in Southeast Asia, and Sumatra, as the main source of oil.

Events that occurred in History Collection include:

Cot Plieng events, Aceh, 10 November 1942
The rebellion led by a young cleric Tengku Abdul Jalil, a home tutor in Cot Plieng Lok Seumawe. Japan's efforts to persuade the cleric was not successful, so that Japan made a surprise raid in the early morning when people are conducting the morning salat. With simple weapons / sober people trying to resist the attack and succeeded in repelling the Japanese forces to return to Lhokseumawe. Likewise with the second attack, was foiled by the people. Only in the last attack (the third), Japan managed to burn the mosque while the leader of the rebellion (Justin Abdul Jalil) managed to escape from the cordon of the enemy, but was eventually shot while praying.

Events Singaparna
Physical resistance occurs in West Java pesantren Sukamanah (Singaparna) under the leadership of KH. Zainal Mustafa, 1943. He rejected the teaching that smells strongly of Japan, in particular the obligation to perform Seikerei every morning, which paid homage to the Emperor of Japan by way of bending toward the sunrise. Seikerei obligation is clearly offend Muslims in Indonesia because it includes shirk / partners with God. Additionally beliaupun not bear to see the suffering of the people due to forced cultivation. When the Japanese envoy will catch, KH. Zainal Mustafa has prepared santri martial arts that have been provided to surround and swarm over Japanese troops, who eventually retreated to Tasikmalaya.

Japan decided to use violence as an attempt to end dissent scholars. On February 25, 1944, there was fierce fighting between the people and the Japanese forces after Friday prayers. Despite numerous attempts of resistance have been conducted, but KH. Zainal Mustafa had also been arrested and taken to Tasikmalaya then brought to Jakarta to receive the death penalty and was buried in Ancol.

Events Indramayu, April 1944
Indramayu events occurred in April 1944 due to the imposition of the obligation to deposit a portion of rice and the implementation of compulsory labor / forced labor / romusha which has resulted in prolonged suffering of the people. The revolt was led by Haji Madriyan and friends in the village of Karang Ampel, Sindang Indramayu District. Japanese troops deliberately cruel act against the people in both regions (Lohbener and Sindang) so that other areas did not participate in revolt after mengetahi atrocities committed in every insurrection.

Rebellion Teuku Hamid
Justin Giyugun Hamid was an officer, along with a platoon of troops fled to the woods to take the fight. This happened in November 1944. Faced with these conditions, the Japanese government making threats to kill the family if the rebels would not give up. These conditions force some rebel troops surrendered, so it can finally crushed.

In the rest of Aceh arise such as the rebuilding of people's resistance in the District Berenaih led by the village chief and assisted by a team Giyugun (voluntary army officers), but all ended with the same condition which was crushed by the Japanese military power with a very cruel.

Rebellion Map
Resistance PETA in Blitar (February 29, 1945)
Resistance is led by Syodanco Supriyadi, Syodanco Muradi, and Dr. Ismail. Resistance is due to problems collecting rice, and Heiho romusha carried out by force and outside the limits of humanity. As the son of the people of the fighters can not bear to see suffering people. In addition, the attitude of the Japanese military trainers are arrogant and condescending Indonesian soldiers. Resistance in Blitar PETA is the largest resistance in Java. But with Japan by wiles Katagiri Colonel (commander of Japanese forces), forces PETA successfully deceived by pretending to be invited to negotiate. Four officers PETA put to death and three others were tortured to death. While Syodanco Supriyadi escaped.
Resistance PETA in Meureudu, Aceh (November 1944)
Resistance is led by Officer T. Gyugun Hamid. The background of this resistance due to the Japanese attitude arrogant and cruel to the people of Indonesia in general and soldiers in particular.
Resistance PETA in Gumilir, Cilacap (April 1945)
Resistance is led by a team leader (Bundanco) Kusaeri colleagues. Resistance is planned starting date of 21 April 1945 the Japanese are known so Kusaeri arrested on April 25, 1945. Kusaeri sentenced to death but did not take place because the Japanese pressured by the Allies.

Resistance Pang Suma
Popular Resistance led by Pang Suma who raged in South Kalimantan. Pang Suma Dayak tribal leaders who are in influence among the tribes in the area and Meliau Tayan. This is guerrilla resistance to disrupt the activities of the Japanese in Borneo.

Suma Pang Momentum resistance begins with the beating of a Dayak labor by Japanese inspectors, one among about 130 workers at a Japanese timber company. This incident then began a series resistance which culminated in a counterattack known as the Dayak village Majang War, from April to August 1944 in the area Tayan Meliau-Trunk-Tarang (Kab. Sanggau). About 600 freedom fighters were killed by the Japanese, including Pang Suma.

Resistance Koreri in Biak
Resistance is led by L. Rumkorem, chairman of the Movement "Koreri" based in Biak. Resistance is motivated by the suffering of the people who are treated as a slave, beaten, and tortured. In such resistance many people fall victim, but people fight fiercely. Japan finally left the island of Biak.

Resistance in South Yapen Island
Resistance is led by Nimrod. When approaching the Allies had given weapons to aid the resistance fighters so that more exciting. Nimrod was beheaded by the Japanese to scare people. But people are not afraid and the guerrilla leader turned up an S. Papare.

Resistance in the Land of Papua
Resistance is led by Samson. In the resistance of the people in Papua, there was a cooperative relationship between the guerrillas with the Allied forces intruders so that people get the gun capital of the Allies.

Underground movement
Actual form of resistance against the Japanese government made the people of Indonesia are not limited to any form of physical resistance, but you can also see other resistance betnuk / underground movement as is done by:
  • Sutan Syahrir groups in the area of ??Jakarta and West Java by posing as a trader in Sindanglaya pineapple.
  • Sukarni group, Adam Malik and Pandu Wiguna. They managed to infiltrate the headquarters of Japanese propaganda officials Sendenbu (now the Antara news agency).
  • Sharif group Thayeb, Eri Sudewo and Chairul Saleh. They are a group of students and learners.

Mr. group. Achmad Subardjo, Sudiro and Wikana. They are a group of movement Kaigun (AL) of Japan.

Those who are members of groups under the ground, trying to find information and opportunities to be able to see the weakness of the Japanese military forces and their businesses will be able you see the result at the time Japan had lost to the Allies, a group pemudalah faster can this information and it is they who ultimately group urged parents to immediately melakukn proclamation.

Thus the picture of the activities of the National movement performed by a group of organizations and social movements during the Japanese occupation government, surely you can understand the causes of failure and why the movement leaders prefer cooperative attitude of the Japanese military government faced a very violent / cruel.

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