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Level of Settlement and Community Development Lampung

HISTORY OF CULTURE | Level of Settlement and Community Development LampungKnown human settlement since the mesolitik estimated. They live in groups ¬ put in places that can meet the natural state of life, such as in caves near the food source or open places in the river, lake, or beach (Soejono, 1992: 155 - 156). In the neolithic period, when the plant was known, began no sign of settling down in a simple village that was inhabited by groups of several families. Activities in the township life that is primarily intended to make ends meet together, begin to set and divided among the members of the community (Soejono, 1992: 167-168). In this period too early also known a system of social organization. 

The settlement which was originally only a simple evolved over time until a steady state (become a city). Residential development to become a city along with the development of human civilization supporters. Can be said faster rate of evolution of civilization, the sooner mapannya a settlement. According to Gordon Childe (1979: 12 - 14) the evolution of human civilization can be divided into three stages of savagery barbarism, and civilization. Stage savagery regarded as the hunting and gathering food. At this time the law has not recognized the existence and governance. Phasebarbarism is a farming community who are familiar with law and governance in the group simply limited and closed. While at this stage of civilization is an agricultural and industrial society. These communities are familiar with governance and customary law which has been organized. 
Besides Childe, Flannery also divide the evolution of civilization into three stages. On the basis of division leaders and rulers. According to Flannery (1979: 28 - 30) stages of evolution of civilization consists of an egalitarian society chiefdoms, and stratified society. Egalitarian society assumes that all human beings in society degree is the same, there is no level or Clas. Community chiefdomsexisting Clas division between leaders and led. While stratified society is a heterogeneous society with various Clas and levels. These communities occur in an urban. Notion of "city", so there is not currently a limitation that can be applied universally. In cultures of different elements have been used differently as a minimum requirement for a settlement to be called a city. For example in the world ofHellenistic, a place where the city says there are elements include a theater, gymnasium, andprytaneion. In the medieval Islamic world city element includes a mosque, market, and where the public baths. European settlement in the fortress town consisted, markets, and the courts (Rapoport, 1986: 22 - 23). In the glory days of Islamic empire in Indonesia, will be considered as the "city" when the court has the power center, the mosque as a center of worship (ritual), and the market as a center of economic activity, and sometimes also the park. Thus the notion of diversity is also caused because of the times that result in a change. 

The existence of the city tend to associated with the political forces that have been established. In the archipelago, especially Java, many inscriptions that provide information that countries before the age Kertanagara Singasari not yield sovereignty / stable royal power. While pretending or kuta was known in inscriptions from the 5th century, but the application of the concept of state with a strong central authority and societal city has not appeared before the 14th century. So the first city in the archipelago that may already have a settlement structure is Trowulan city, city of Majapahit (Wiryomartono, 1995: 1). 

Prior to the Majapahit era that is about the 8th century in the ancient kingdom of Mataram was there a tiered settlement consisting of the central region of the kingdom, character, and Wanua. At the center of the capital of the kingdom in which stood the palace is the place of Sri Maharaja and residence of the king's sons and close relatives, high officials and the royal courtiers. Areas of character, which is controlled areas of the rakai and pamgat, as well as regional Wanua or village led by rama(Sumadio, 1990: 190). The concept of Wanua Kayuagung area, Histories, and Lampung have a slightly different meaning. Wanua or Banua or simply called Nua in the Austronesian language environment does not refer to urban settlements. Wanua closer to the idea of rural settlements with social status, political, and economic autonomy. Sentence maruwat Wanua the inscription can be interpreted Kedukan Hill pentasbihan for guidance of autonomous villages that later became the main area of Sriwijaya. Closer to the meaning Wanua is home to the inauguration (Wiryomartono, 1995: 17). In terms Tulangbawang society Nua (local dialect called Nuwou) refers to the smallest residential unit that is home. Residential units higher level Wanua called tiyuh Anek, or Pekon(Troe, 1997: 129). Housing ladder as time Old Mataram Kingdom in Java is strongly influenced by the level in the strata of government. Connection with the settlement strata levels of government continue until the Islamic Mataram even up to now. 

In Lampung have not found an indicator of central political power as a kingdom of Mataram, Majapahit, and the Sultanate of Banten in Java or Srivijaya, Melayu, and the Sultanate of Palembang in Sumatra. Have not found an indicator of political power does not mean that in Lampung are not familiar with the system of government organizations. Community groups who occupy a tiyuh already know the system of government in the form of indigenous organizations. With this organizational system is assumed to have levels of public housing Lampung. 

Indigenous Community Governance Lampung 
Lampung based on the legend and the evidence remains of archaeological initially concentrated on the scale Berak, the Barisan Mountains region around Lake Ranau, West Lampung. In this area many megalithic monuments in the form of dolmen and Menhir complex in a restricted area of the castle moat and the ground. Estimated, because the pressure is strong population growth causing migration occurs throughout Lampung. Olivier Sevin (1989: 49 - 69) estimates the indigenous people of Lampung is Pubian which occupies the area between Padangratu, City Court, Bay Betung, and the southern region where Mount Sugih this region split Sekampung Way. At about the 17th century until the 19th wave of migration from outside into the Lampung. At about the 17th century wave of migration from Banten. Later in the 19th century occurred colonization from Java. According to oral history tradition, emigrants who went to Lampung also from Pagarruyung, Bengkulu, Jambi, the Malays and Bugis (Citizen, 1994: 3 - 13; Hadikusuma, 1989: 44 - 52). 

Masyarakat Lampung before getting culture from outside influences such as India (Hinduism Buddhism) are familiar with the kind of democratic government form clans. In the clan government have physical completeness of heresy, namely a large house that served for the negotiations (Alf, 1954: 5). According to Ahmad Kesuma Yudha with reference to the opinion of JW Naarding (Yudha, 1996: 3), the government is known as the royal clan Tulangbawang extinct. Emptiness is used Sriwijaya government control of Lampung and introduce traditional clan system of government. This system lasted up until then Banten master. 

When Banten entered in 1530 Lampung, Lampung region is divided into regions keratuan(customary law community) is comprised of top Keratuan controlled territory and Tulangbawang LTD,calls Keratuan Krui controlled territory, Ranau, and Histories, Keratuan in Pugung control and Pubian Pugung region, as well as in the chaos Keratuan controlled the region around the Gulf Betung. As powerful Banten, Lampung, Keratuan in Pugung divided again and stood Keratuan Maringgai(rolling) and K White Blood eratuan (Kalianda). Thus, after the extinction of the Kingdom in Lampung Tulangbawang unknown in the form of government, but a growing empire is a system of democratic governance in the form of keratuan (Soebing, 1988: 35).

Views estimates keratuan-keratuan area in Lampung

At about the seventh century from 17 to 18 keratuan the form of government based on traditional alliances BUAY (descent) called pivot (unity BUAY core or clan) and clan (the unity of the BUAY orbunch in the form of village or tribal entity (Hadikusuma, 1989: 157 .) clan governance system in Sumatra Palembang sultanate created in the framework of efforts to control political and economic life of regions below him (Mintosih, 1993: 42 - 45). The system of government tends to be more bureaucratic clans for the sake of the social life of greater political and complex. In contrast to the traditional leadership system in Lampung keratuan, clan government is part of the authoritarian system in which elected leaders and appointed a rational (not hereditary) by the holders of a higher power. The formation of clans referring to the Law Simbur Light, which is a codification of the legal provisions applicable empire of the 17th century in the Sultanate of Palembang. Codification of the law committed by Sinuhun Sending Queen, consort of Sultan Sending Kenayan (1629 to 1636). 

Hierarchy of government under the sovereign composed of the regions - local-level officials led by the present governor called Rangga, Kerangga, or Tumenggung. Territory authority calledKetemenggungan. Regional powers Rangga comprises several Pesirah led Marga Marga. pesirah a lot of the instrumental to the sultan granted the title of Duke or DEPATI. A clan consists of village led by Kerio or Proatin. The village head in his village who have Pesirah not called Kerio but calledPembarap. Position pembarap slightly higher than Kerio, because pembarap also a vice Pesirah. Each village comprises several villages, headed Penggawa. In 1826 the system of government clan taken over Dutch colonial rule. Since then the government structure, the clan is under and subject to the power of the Resident. 

Changes of power in the hands of Dutch colonial rule was not much alter traditional governance systems lampung community. In 1873, the Dutch set Residency Lampung is divided into six Onder Afdeeling (Kawedanaan). In 1928, the Dutch set the Ordinance called Gemeent Inlandsche Buitengewestan Ordinance. With this legislation, given the legitimacy of structural clan in the Netherlands Indies government. The heads of clans (Pasirah) selected from the indigenous leaders of the clan. When the Japanese power the entire customs system is not running. 

Entering the reign of RI, in 1947 removed the clan system of government because it is considered a colonial legacy. In 1953 the government introduced a system villages as village institutions in West Sumatra. Nagari system ultimately can not thrive and eventually disappear. Then the system government to follow the rules that apply to the present (Yudha, 1996: 4 - 6). Along with the disappearance of village institutions, revived the clan system, but do not have the authority to regulate the power of government. clan system of government lasted until 1976. Law No. 10 in 1975 on Regional Government settings remove the traditional governance system in Indonesia.

Some sites in the Point Level
Keratuan capital of 

Lampung people since before there was a big influence from political forces outside the familiar system of government in the form keratuan. Based on oral traditions and archaeological remains there, keratuan administration system runs from late prehistoric times. One keratuan formation is influenced by the pressure of population growth at that time occurred in the area Berak scale. Some archaeological remains of the region in the form of scale Berak megalithic monuments is strong evidence of the familiar system of leadership. At first there were at least four keratuan namely the Peak Keratuan, Keratuan calls, Keratuan in Pugung, and Keratuan in chaos. Based on oral tradition tells us that the system of government tends to be egalitarian keratuan. The leader is a charismatic, spontaneous chosen because it has advantages. 

Keratuan Institution shows the characteristics chiefdom which is more advanced than in egalitarian societies because they know the system of government. This society is a society so early state laws already familiar with the rules even though he knew the absolute authority of leaders. Thus the community is usually in one family. Agriculture is the main livelihood is supported craft business. In the residential center of the main building there are communal. Usually also have a shrine for a religious facility. Housing authorities also serves as the administrative center of the bureaucracy. In the capital, the settlement was surrounded by some of the villages are smaller (Renfrew & Bahn, 1991: 156 to 157). 

Based on oral history traditions, there are at least two public housing sites as the capital of keratuan capital Canguk Gaccak as Keratuan at Peak (Citizen , 1994: 6) and as the capital Pugung in Keratuan led Queen Pugung Galuh (rolling, 1988: 14). 

Canguk Gaccak site at Kampung Sekipi, LTD District High, North Lampung (Research Team, 2006). Canguk site on the edge Gaccak ABUNG Way, which is a child Rarem Way. In the north the river is the land that bordered the river and the moat natural and artificial land fortress. Moat and the castle of land located in the east, across the north orientation - south to connect two rivers flow. On the inside there is a complex area dolmen, stone circle (stone enclouser), and Menhir consists of twelve groups. 

In the land located south of the river is the tomb complex consists of two groups. The first tomb groups are on the edge of rice fields. The main character is buried Minak King In Lawuk, located in the easternmost part. Grave condition seen today are not equipped sepulcher. Boundary line of the tomb of andesitic rocks. Grave headstone is a type of truncheon-shaped Aceh rock materialgranodiorit. In the westernmost part of the tomb pivot Master Teacher. These figures are the descendants Minak Trio Diso. The second tomb group in the west of the tomb of the first group. Tomb groups are on high land about 3 m from the surface of wet land. On the stairs in the east toward the tomb there is a stone of about 25 cm in diameter. Stone is a symbol of the King In Minak head Lawuk, which must be trampled by the descendants of Diso when Minak trio will visit. In the complex there are three tombs tomb. The most eastern tomb is the tomb of the White Virgin Minak or Hyang Mudo, tomb amid a grave Minak Trio Diso, and that the north is the tomb of Sheikh Abdurrahman. 

Lampung regional folklore about the story mentions that Betan Subing In Minak King is a character Lawuk defeated Datu In the Peak. In Minak King Lawuk later defeated by Betan Subing, one of Datu At Peak. To restore the honor of Datu On top, head Minak King In Lawuk buried in the middle of the road when going to the tomb of Datu At peak, between the river with the tomb of Datu At Peak (Imron and Wahid, 2002: 20 - 46). When referring to this story then the main character who is buried in this complex is Datu At Peak. 

To the southeast Minak tomb complex Diso Trio is about 300 m there is a small hill called the Mount Woods Bekasan. On top of the hill there is an area of about 1 ha, surrounded by a moat and a river. The trench on the east side about 50 cm wide. The trench on the south side about 10 m wide with a depth of about 6 m. West and north sides of the river which is a child Pasuut Way LTD. 

In the land encircled by a moat and the river, there are shrines oriented northwest - southeast. People who buried consists of Dara Minak White (Southwest), Rendang Sedayu (middle), and munggah In Minak LTD (northeast). Sedayu Rendang is known as one of the wife Minak Trio Diso. This figure also known as the King Lemaung. The third tomb tomb was not completed. Nisan as a flat-shaped grave marker and a set of stone. 

Canguk Gaccak addition, the capital keratuan mentioned in folklore was Pugung. Pugung term is now known as Pugungraharjo. Site includes Pugungraharjo administratively Pugungraharjo Village area, District Jabung. Pugungraharjo sites occupied area of approximately 30 ha. To the south there are sites that stream Pugung Way into the site boundaries. Way Way Pugung is Sekampung children. Land fetur fortress surrounded the site and the trench soil. The width of land surrounding the castle 5 m, while the high 2 to 3 m. On the outside of the castle there is a wide trench 3 to 5 m. In some places there in the castle entrance. With land fort, the site area is divided into three parts. 

The first part is at the westernmost part. The north side of the first part of this limited land fort that ran the southwest - northeast and then turn to the southeast. The fort was then turned again to the south until a meeting with the rivers. The second part is the site to the east of the first part. The second part is also limited by the existence of a longitudinal ground fort west - east. Fort land then turned south. The third section of the site area is located in the easternmost part. This section is not limited by the castle ground. 

Archaeological remains of the remains, contained in Pugungraharjo site consists of a variety of forms, including a stone with a hole, bergores stone, stone mortar, Menhir, and punden berundak. There are archaeological remains of the first section of hollow stone, stone bergores, and punden berundak. In the second part is the order Menhir and the altar stone which formed a rectangular plan. In one there Menhir sculptures that formed a circular line at both ends. Whereas at one altar stone sculptures which have formed the letter T. Menhir composition and stone altar with a complex called Stone's body. To the east and south of the rock complexes are punden berundak bodies. Archaeological remains of which are in the most eastern part of the site of stone with a hole Pugungraharjo, bergores stone, stone mortar, and punden berundak. One punden berundak contained in this section is the largest punden. In addition, in the south of the largest punden there punden statues. In this punden statue ever found male figure sitting cross-legged in the attitude vajrasana. Described his attitude with the palms in front of the chest, the left index finger pointing up, right index finger is bent at the top left, the radius of the other hand is folded. Attitudes like his are not uncommon in the iconography, but the attitude toward naivedyamudra usually found in streams tantris (Soekatno, 1985: 165 to 166). 

Punden largest Pugungraharjo site Punden known as VI. Berdenah VI Punden square size 12 x 12 m, with a height of about 7 m. Punden consists of 3 terraces growing up a little more size. Boundary between each deck is reinforced with stones times. There punden around a small ditch. In the middle of the fourth side there punden driveway width of about 2 m. This entrance jutting out and only to the first terrace. On either side of the entrance there is a kind of ladder cheek. At the end of the left and right side of the entrance there is stone that is placed like a makara.

Punden berundak Pugungraharjo site (Doc. Balar Bandung, 2005)

In addition to the complex punden this site are Pugungraharjo springs. In the spring there are several forms of megalithic remains of other cultures such as bergores stone, stone mortar, and stone with a hole. Stone with a hole the whole amounted to 19 pieces. Besides the springs, the remains, the remains found in similar small watersheds located in the southern part of the site. At this location there are 4 stones bergores. The shape of the scratch lines with grooves for the fingers, but clearly shows the result of human activities (Triwuryani, 1998). Canguk Gaccak and Pugungraharjo as capital keratuan have the same pattern. In residential areas there is the shrine for a religious facility. Some buildings such as the dolmen and Menhir found at both sites. This shows that the religious background of both public supporters are megalithic tradition. Religious developments that occurred in Canguk Gaccak and Pugungraharjo there is a difference. Indicators of Islamic tomb shows that Canguk Gaccak megalithic tradition developed into the Islamic tradition, while in there looking Pugungraharjo development process of Hindu-Buddhist tradition. 

Theoretically settlements around the capital keratuan there are some smaller villages. Around Canguk Gaccak did not find any sites in smaller settlements. The absence of settlements around Canguk Gaccak illustrates that the settlement when it was based and collected in Canguk Gaccak. Folklore also illustrates that the pattern of settlement in the cluster Canguk Gaccak. In Canguk Gaccak there are some groups such as the descendants Nunyai Buay, Buay Unyi, Buay Subing, Buay Nuban, Buay BUAY Beliyuk and several others who live together in Canguk Gaccak. In the future descendants of the clan was formed Siwo ABUNG Migo consisting of nine genera (Citizen, 1994: 8). Settlement of each clan of the clan is no longer ABUNG in Canguk Gaccak. 

Pugungraharjo as the capital has a tendency keratuan smaller settlements around him. Along the Way Sekampung there are several sites in a smaller size, having characteristics similar culture of megalithic. Internet sites such as Jabung site, Negarasaka, and Meris site. Jabung site of the castle-shaped rectangles measuring 118 x 150 meters. Composition of the fort consisted of a ditch (outside) and land on the inside bergunduk. The entrance to the fort is on the west, north, and east. Inside the castle, there are remains of two successive stone structure with a northwest-southeast orientation. At the end of this sequential stone, in the middle of the page, there Menhir phallus-shaped like those found in the complex rock bodies (Pugungraharjo). Outside the castle complex, east and south are the mounds of earth that local communities are said to be a cemetery. Other findings are a stone structure which forms a particular pattern is called a stone barn. In the southwestern part there is a high mound reaches 7 meters (Indraningsih, 1985: 8 - 9). 

Negarasaka site is a megalithic complex, located approximately 350 m west of Jabung site. In this complex there is the castle like the complex and Pugungraharjo Jabung. The structure consists of the castle mound outside the inner moat, and following gunduk land in the deepest part. The most important findings of this complex is four flat stones by the inhabitants called stone seats, arranged lengthwise parallel north - south. At the bottom of a flat stone is a stone buffer. This megalithic heritage located at the northern part of the castle complex (Indraningsih, 1985: 9). 

Meris site of land that surrounded the castle moat. Plan consists of irregular site one page with a width of about 4.2 ha. On the inside there is a nearly square punden flat on the ground with rocks distribution. Viewed from the pattern of spreading, perhaps these stones are graves of the Muslims with orientation north - south. Also in the western part there is a large spread like dolmen stones which have such a stone stable form. In the outer two punden berundak (Triwuryani, 1998: 10 - 11). 

On the basis of comparison of several such sites is the picture that during keratuan, residential center located on the main tributaries. Magnitude larger site than the settlement supporters. In these settlements there in the shrine as a means of religious activities. In the case of Canguk Gaccak and Pugungraharjo of megalithic buildings. 

Settlement Period Marga Government 
During the clan system of government prevailing in Lampung there is a hierarchy in charge of resettlement Ketemenggungan several villages. Ketemenggungan settlement found at the site Tomonggongs Minak Castle. The existence of the Citadel site related Minak Tomonggong ethno-history of the character Tomonggongs Minak. Some people claim that The Chief is a character Minak in connection with Pagardewa community. As a major figure in office Minak Tomonggong important in building a society under the auspices Pagardewa Sultanate of Banten. In addition Tomonggong Minak figures, there are other figures that Minak Kerenggo. This figure is the lord of the castle at any river, east of Tulangbawang Way. His tomb is at the edge of Umbulan Ridge west Suloh Tulangbawang Way. 

Minak Tomonggong Castle site to the west of Tulangbawang Way, east of Village Penumangan. Administratively, including in the area of Kampong Penumangan, Tulang Bawang district of Central, Tulangbawang. Based on the visible symptoms, the fortress longitudinal orientation north - south with a length of 600 to 800 m. The fort consisted of two flanking ditches mound. The north end of the fort began in Garlic Potat and on the southern tip of the Onion Bakon. This region is the most upstream part Tulangbawang Way, next to a meeting between hilinya Way Kanan and Way Left. 

In the north, between the fort area and there are grave Tulangbawang Way Minak Tomonggong and Onions Pukem. The Chief was Minak tomb east of the fort. To the east of the tomb there is a Pukem Onion horseshoe lake. At the northern end of the castle there is a kind of seasonal river that ends in Pukem Onion (Saptono, 2001: 19 - 20). 

Based on the linkages between the site Tomonggong Minak Castle with the clan system of government is seen that the site is the highest administrative center in the region of Lampung. In other places have never found any site associated with the character or Kerengga Tomonggong. This figure is an official under the Emperor. Government clan according to the Law of Light Simbur be closely related to the Sultanate of Palembang. When master Lampung Banten, perhaps the system of government which has been running will be retained. Thus both in the Sultanate of Banten Sultanate of Palembang or settlement is a center of government Ketemenggungan, namely residential central level of government under the imperial capital. 

The geographical location of the site Tomonggong Minak Castle located at the downstream junction between the Right Way and the Way the Left is very strategic. Placement at a meeting of two great rivers will facilitate the exchange of useful patterns for residential and institutional development of government itself. Exchange that occurs in the form of exchange of goods and information. Colin Renfrew and Paul Bahn (1991 310) Kusumohartono and Bugie (1995: 105) refers to Karl Polanyi says there are three models of exchange RECIPROCITY (reciprocal), redistribution (redistribution), and market exchange (market exchange). Exchange RECIPROCITY is the obligation of giving and receiving among different individuals social relationships. Exchange of redistribution associated with the obligation to pay for goods and services to community leaders, who then distributes some of acquisition for public interest or gift. While the model exchange market, the principals do not have a certain social ties oblige them to perform the existence of exchange and bargaining is possible in it. Communities in Fort Minak Tomonggong site will play three exchange model. 

Keletakan Viewed from the aspect of geographical patterns of functional relationships depicteddendritic Bronson model. This model describes the pattern of settlement followed the river, and form a network system model of exchange of goods exchange market. According to Bennet Bronson assumption, in the mouth of the river will be found trade center. In the upstream areas, the estuary where the river entered and found the main tributaries, the settlement will be found the two and thenthree levels. In the most upstream area, on the last stretch of river that can be taken by means of water transport, will find a livelihood gatherer groups collecting forest products. Commodity goods are channeled through three levels of settlement and the two finally reached the center of trade in the estuary area (Miksic, 1984: 10). Patterns associated with the exchange model exchange market and the pattern of dendritic Bronson model, it appears that the region Tomonggong Minak Castle served as a trading center linking the inland areas with the outside areas. 

Level of settlements under Ketemenggungan the village or by the terms of Lampung is tiyuh. In large rivers along the common lot of residential sites which are residential clan level. Internet sites such as sites in the flow Sabut Castle Way and the site left in the flow of the White Stone Way Kanan. 

Sabut Castle site in Kampung Gunungkatun, Tulang Bawang district Udik (Saptono, 2002: 88 - 89). Geographically located at the northwest corner Way Left. In the west there is the flow Way site and bustle. The river is then turned eastward and empties into the Way the Left. Fetur fortress of hollow (ditch) and the mound of earth. On the north side of the basin is elongated in east west direction, starting from the Left and the Way to the Way of Babel ends. Wide basin of about 2 m with a depth varying between 0.5 to 1 m. To the south of the basin, is about 50 m there is the castle moat square berdenah. 

Parit originated from the north side of the Left Way to the west along the approximately 100 m. In the mid-section that does not have dug a width of about 4 m. The trench is a continuation of the west side of the north side. Longitudinal trench north - south along the approximately 75 m. West side of the trench and then turned to the east and ends at the Way the Left. South side of this trench was not very deep, its width is also difficult to recognition. On the east side is the flow of Way Left. To the south of the fort is the tomb of ancient moat. People who are buried Sendang Menak Belawan. 

Situs Batu Putih in the Mountain Village area of Light, Mountain of Light District (Saptono, 2006: 94). Sites located in the southern edge of the Right Way. On the south edge of the Right Way is the natural levee that ran from the northeast (the Right Way) to the southwest. The more southwesterly natural levees higher. With this natural levee site location Batu Putih is abundant flood plains very fertile. In the southwest, on the natural levee, there is the tomb of Prince Buay Sugih Menak. Circumstances without the grave and tomb before also without headstone. Headstone is now a new headstone. Cupola of the tomb has bamboo booth materials. Around the tomb of Prince Buay Menak Sugih, especially in the south there are several graves that are grave public. Indicators former settlement sites located in White Rock fragment distribution in the form of artifacts. 

Communities in Sabut Castle site and the castle moat restricted land in Batu Putih is not found the moat and the castle ground, but the limited nature of the river and the natural levee. The same elements found in both sites is the tomb of the main character. The existence of the tomb of the main character describes the change in the religious system of pre-Islamic period is marked by megalithic buildings with Islamic period marked by the main character's grave. Religious system substantially the same place the elements of ancestor worship. 

People who live in a village has a claim (field) called the term umbulan. During the field work they settle in that location. Existing settlements tend to be temporary umbulan. Society has Bandardewa in Tulangbawang umbulan in Lily Nyelai and Jung Belabuh (Research Team, 2007: 19 - 21). Lily Nyelai site on the edge of Lily Way Nyelai. This river is a child Tulangbawang Way. Indicators of human activities in the past in the form of fragments of pottery, fragments of pottery, glass, and clinker. Distribution of the artifacts are on an area of approximately 3600 m2. Jung Belabuh site on the edge of which is a Kalutum Tulung Way Italic children. Extensive site of about 5 hectares of land and limited castle moat. It was previously Umbulan Bandar village god, because the condition can not function optimally, then moved to the village community Bandar god now. This location was then made umbulan. At sites where there is spread of ceramic and pottery in the area of approximately 1600 m2. Viewed from the two sites are umbulan, illustrated that umbulan are on the edge of the creek. The area occupied by not too large. Although umbulan only a temporary settlement, based on existing artifacts indicate a variety of activities.

The Conclusions 
traditional Lampung people have their own system of government called keratuan. This governance system is estimated to grow after the collapse of the Kingdom of Tulangbawang or in the kingdom of Srivijaya. When the Sultanate of Palembang Sumatra controlled most of the clan system of government formed. In Lampung the clan system continued until the reign of the Sultanate of Banten.

Keratuan In the reign of residential centers tend to be on the bank of a tributary of the village while the smaller settlements located on the banks of major rivers. Model keratuan capital settlement of land and fortified trenches. In the settlement has a shrine for religious purposes. 

The clan system of government there ketemenggungan settlements and villages. Ketemenggungan is the center of government under the imperial level. Ketemenggungan settlements in Lampung are in upstream Tulangbawang Way. Settlement called Fort Minak Tomonggongs. The existence of a large river upstream near the confluence of two rivers is very strategic for supporting the distribution patterns that will benefit the sustainability of settlements. 

In all the major rivers in the region found upstream ketemenggungan villages as settlements clan level. Kampung is limited land and the castle ditch or natural stream. Important element in the settlement of the clan is the tomb of the main character. The existence of the tomb of the main character to fulfill a religious function that is substantially related to the worship of ancestral spirits. Umbulan as the smallest settlements are usually located on the banks of the creek. The area is bounded umbulan land castle and moat, some are not fortified. Based on terdeposisikan artifacts umbulan site, residents of community activities are also berragam. 


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Source article:
This paper was published in the book "Settlement, Environment, and Society", pp. 63 to 80. Editor Dr. Supratikno Rahardjo. Bandung: Ikatan Ahli Archeology Indonesia, 2007

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