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Kubu Tribe Adaptation Strategies In Environmental Change

HISTORY OF CULTUREKubu Tribe Adaptation Strategies In Environmental Change | Environmental changes in Jambi province has been taking place since mid 1970. Land clearing for a production forest (HTI), transmigration settlements, the development of plantation agriculture, improved road infrastructure, forest fires and forest clearing carried out continuously has led to environmental degradation in the lowlands of Jambi. Like for example the data in late 1997 found that oil palm plantations has reached 24% of land area in the Province. Jambi, or about 40% of non-forest areas. The following is a transmigration project other projects that follow (such as oil palm plantation project, settlements, roads, etc.), according to Bohmer widely affect environmental change in the lowlands of Jambi. The projects according to Bohmer has changed the functions of forests from primary forests to plantations and residential areas. (Kevin Bohmer, 1998).

Meanwhile, Jungle People who live in some areas, before the two options in life that is lived in a state of extreme marginalized in situ or completely displaced because they have lost their forest resources and land. Some groups The Wilderness has undergone a change in activities that were once based it on subsistence gathering activities-hunting, farming, and business gathering of natural resources to the agricultural business of rubber and services. Rubber farms are farms that have been long done by The Malays in Jambi area. Rubber farming has become the primary choice Rimba people, compared with oil palm plantations. Despite the efforts of governments to engage them in the PIR. Rubber farming has made the Jungle People have been doing considerable intensification of real resources and increase the productivity of their workforce (Sandbukt & Warsi, 1998.24). The main problem then arises to the Jungle People who raise the quality of rubber is the quality of their low latex and rubber production quantities are limited when compared with rubber Malays.
Some groups of other Jungle People, among others that no longer have land, basing life to service businesses, such as wild boar hunting effort (by the palm growers and companies, wild boar are considered as pests), take the rubber seedlings for later sale, rubber tapping workers , rubber transport workers, or even from begging. Besides, there are working in the timber business as a laborer ongkak, surveyors, chainsaw operators, guards, etc. log-pond. Timber businesses, both legal and illegal, for they simply provide a lucrative profit. Because they will receive the award in the form of money that they can use to buy their needs (Sandbukt & Warsi, 1998, 4).

Changes in the activity of these forms of production, does not occur in all groups and make them permanently abandon entirely their subsistence activities. As The Jungle at TN Hill 12 for example, in addition to hunting-gathering and farming, they are also working on some wood toke. Or even have people who work entirely in Wilderness company without any subsistence activities. Forest product collection effort also occasionally they do when there is market demand. Another example is the life of The Jungle in TNBT who based almost entirely to the business of collecting forest products, because the forest is still relatively good (Sandbukt & Warsi, 1998).

Even so, without any condition of forest resources and land as above lead to some groups of people in the western region Prop Wilderness. Edinburgh has a view of the future and opportunities to secure agricultural resources by developing it's top rubber. Besides they viewed rubber as the primary key to future economic prosperity, rubber plantations for them is also a guarantee of security of land they own. Woods for People who have gardens between oil palm and rubber sandwiched between transmigrants public lands or gardens Malays, tend to maintain relatively intensive and even maintain a secondary crop between rubber trees there. An activity that is rarely done by several groups The Wilderness existing other areas (TNBT & Hill TN 12) (Sandbukt & Warsi, 1998).

Ecologically, The Wilderness living spread over three different areas in the lowlands of Jambi province. Namely in the area of ??the western province of Jambi (Sumatra's east around the causeway), Bukit 12 National Park and Bukit Tigapuluh National Park (located on the border between Riau - Jambi). Indeed, compared to two other areas, namely around the causeway east of Sumatra and Bukit Tigapuluh National Park, Bukit 12 National Park is arguably the center of "culture" The Jungle. Not less than 1046 souls that dwell there on the Mount 12 of 2670 The soul of the existing forest in Jambi. The rest of 1524 people or 60% being around Hill 30 and rubber plantations and oil migration around the causeway east of Sumatra, Padang - Lampung. Noted that there were 1259 people living in the western province of Jambi. (Sandbukt & Warsi, 1998). Of the two locations mentioned above, namely TNBT & Bukit 12 National Park, western region Prop. Edinburgh is the area most likely to have a change, because this area of ??the allotment of land used for the location of transmigration and oil palm plantations.

The Jungle of Life does have kerterkaitan closely with the natural environment. For example, appear in their subsistence activities, namely remayow (hunting-gathering) and behuma (farming). Both of these subsistence activities are putting the forests and the environment as the basis for its management. In addition to the subsistence activities, the Forest People as people who have high levels of residential mobility, by Øyvind Sandbukt said to be the spearhead of the trade in Jambi Malay sultanate of Malacca Strait a few centuries ago. People who live dihulu Jungle small rivers which are central to S. Batanghari in Jambi and S. Musi in Palembang, is a seeker of forest resources (porridge, rattan, resin, aloes, & Balam) formidable (Sandbukt, 1991).

As collectors of forest resources, they are part of an integrated system with bureaucratic structures Jambi Malay sultanate at that time. Bureaucratic system was introduced to them. In the bureaucratic structure, they introduced a system of porridge. The main functions of molten metal (the Malays who became a liaison between The Wilderness and the outside world) is actually collected taxes (colonize) the earth, and resolve various issues of local level conflict. Porridge and inheritance as if has become the entrance to their world. How to get jajah / taxes by running the hand over or mempertukaran produce goods with merchandise from the outside, such as cloth, tobacco, and sugar.

The relationship of this Jungle and outsiders (in this case had been represented by the heirs & porridge) is not profitable for them. By Sandbukt then be said that the activity of collecting forest resources Forest People is seen as a form of their subsistence mode for wide influence on the lives (Sandbukt, 1991, 110) (Sandbukt, 2001). But according to The Wilderness Person ultimate goal for collecting forest resources, is actually not based on meeting the needs of subsistence, but rather refers to the exploitation of natural resources in the interest of trade or external exchange. (Person, 1989, 508). Style of their livelihood is based on this economic activity, has a resemblance to the lifestyle Poenan. Like what is expressed by Carl F. Hoffman, that the Punan people base their lives on the collection of forest products, rather than on hunting activities (Carl Hoffman, 1985).

Besides the natural environment (forest) serves as the basis for subsistence and economy, natural environment around also has cultural significance for them. Cultural meaning is for example reflected in the identity or their identity as The Wilderness. In his view the human world, The Jungle divide the dichotomy between the faction and the Malays. Definitions The Malays they kaitakan with the basic concepts withered. Withered diassosiasikan with animals natong-withered or hedgehogs, the animals are dangerous, uncertain arrival, and amazing. The animal was considered remarkable for Persons Wilderness because it is all the sudden arrival of its path and makes plants die or wither. There are similarities between natong connotation wilt and the Malays. The Malays, can be seen from the Me-Wilt, which means people who bring destruction and disaster. This is evidenced by the forms of abstinence for the outsiders who diassosiasikan as Malays and Muslims.

Malays are defined as those who dwell outside the forest, living in villages and Muslim. For The Jungle outside the forest area is considered the area that is always bright, sunny, away from the dark forest. So then they call the Malays as the light, or someone who has always lived in the open air. In contrast to them, Jungle People who live in the woods. Forests then has been a region full of their authority. Village or the outside world, for the Forest People is the full authority of the Malays. Distinction authority area is then reflected into the identity and other forms of forest resource management by Forest People on their own, as people who live in the forests and The Malays as bright or people who live in the world outside (Sandbukt, 1984, 85 -87).

Another example of cultural significance of forests for the Forest People look them in the world of cosmology. Jungle people divide the world universe, in halom nio (today's world where they are, ie forests where they live) and halom dewo (the world where the gods are). Jungle people accept the world as the real world dewo there, even more real than the forest as the world they live in today, namely halom nio. They saw the forest as a world or halom Antonio as a place of their residence and this life or the world is a world tiruon imitation of the real real world, namely halom dewo. Two of the world they also symbolize the concept of a rough world (forests) vs. aluy world (the world's god), which significantly opposite but not necessarily opposed, because the two worlds they can work in harmony. This knowledge has become the cultural values ??that serve as guidelines and patterns in the Jungle People treat the surrounding natural environment that materialized later in the custom rules they have to keep an appropriate balance between the natural and the artificial nature deities (Sandbukt, 1984, 89 ).

Between Forms of Production and Practice The Jungle

The basic assumption of culture as an adaptive system evolved from understanding the nature of evolution, which always saw human beings always try to fit in with the surrounding natural environment, both biologically / genetically and culturally. The process involves the selection of adaptation in the evolution of genetic and cultural variants that are considered as the best way to solve the environmental problems faced. Adaptation is a dynamic process because both the organism and the environment itself nothing is constant Hardestry ,1977,45-46). Roy Ellen's stage adaptation divide into 4 types of phylogenetic stages of working through an individual's genetic adaptation through natural selection, physical modification of the phenotype / physical characteristics, learning processes, and cultural modifications. Cultural modifications for Ellen to be supreme for homo sapiens, in which the cultural adaptation and transmission of information as the giver to say the specific character of the dominant, so then the focus of attention focused on the learning process of adaptation, and modification of culture (Roy Ellen, 1982, 236-237).

The concept of adaptation is a key mechanism in the evolutionary process that draws on the success, the measurement of human ability to reproduce and survive. Populations of organisms are expected to achieve an effective relationship with their habitat or to be adaptive to the habitat that can be served to perpetuate forms of life. Dilakukakan new adaptation by humans if the relationship with the perceived habitat conditions are no longer effective. Human cultural adaptation has indeed been brought increased freedom in human beings from the constraints of its habitat. The concept of level of technology development and adaptation refers not only on technology but also on the configuration of institutions and social relations that correspond to each of the effectiveness of the use of specific energy systems (Cohen,).

Adaptation in addition to focusing on social groups, also focus on the individual. According to Ellen Roy, group (institution / organization) can not be directly observed because they are an abstraction of individual behavior were observed. Adaptation as a group is a product of individual or cumulative adaptation manipulative adaptation of powerful individuals or collectively in the group. Adaptation occurs through cumulative practice of individuals. Adaptive responses of individuals being studied can be transmitted to others independently carrying properties (Roy Ellen, 1982: 237-238). Behavioral responses are considered to have high-speed response and specifically adjust to fluctuations in environmental changes.

Compared to the adaptive process that is genetically and physically, the behavior is considered the most rapid response of what organisms can do. When referring to the process of learning, behavioral responses were considered also is the most flexible adaptation levels. The key concept of social adaptation at the level of individual later developed into adaptive behavior, strategic actions and sistensis of both the so-called adaptive strategy. Adaptive behavior is a more general term and refers to forms of behavior that fit the goals, the achievement of satisfaction, and decision. Strategic actions, are considered more specific and refers to the special interests that belongs to the actor. Own strategic actions contained in the concept that enveloped like rationality, maximization, achievement orientation, etc.. Adaptive strategy is also a component of the action strategies or specific actions by the level of predictive success, which are selected by the individual in determining his decision (Ellen, 1982, 271-272).

Transitional modes / forms of production (mode of production), as is the case of the Jungle People from hunting-gathering, farming and gathering of forest products to the agricultural business of rubber and services, for the Team Inglod occurs when the original goal of trying to meet subsistence needs, has now changed for the purpose of the capitalistic nature of capital accumulation. For the hunting-gathering societies, People Jungle example, according to Tim Inglod diakumulasikannya capital is human capital workforce itself, so that the transitional form of production is also not free from human effort to maximize productivity and streamline its work to obtain maximum results (Inglod, 1991, 269). The main focus of the study of this production is directed to personnel management processes that are owned by the community.

Because labor (labor) is a creative activity in which humans interact with nature, which is the historical use of accumulated knowledge, techniques, and technology in order to produce something that is considered useful. In particular forms of production is defined as the arrangement of tools, techniques, materials, and objects used in the process of labor, or objects that mediate the relationship between man and nature in a productive activity (Thomas Barfield, 1997.325). The production system is done by humans, is also designed to allocate its resources. In this case, the resources are at stake by the People Rimba power, their natural resources (forest & land) capital. The allocation of these resources refer to the cultural rules used by humans to regulate ownership and use of the source.

Aspects of the production system is the technology used (technology), the division of labor (division of labor), and production units (units of production) that is personal and group. Technology in addition to referring to the tool or machine, also refers to cultural knowledge to make and use tools, add and mengimprovisiasi raw materials in order of production (Spradley & McCurdy, 1987, 277-228). With a focus on adaptation strategies to the analysis of forms of production, then by itself bring understanding of the ecology and the economy will run together, rather than mempertentangkannya (Roy Ellen, 1982, 278).

At first the concept of working culture through cultural adaptation is considered to provide some analytical tools for the study of adaptive behavior, which refers to a set of values, precedent (something that became a model), model, or style (cognitive map), where individuals can choose in order as guide decisions and actions, both as a base or an unconscious awareness of socialization. Culture can also be interpreted as supporting the moral code, which serves as the guardian of the freedom to choose their own decisions on the basis of prediction, gratuity, or situational needs, but must understand the norms of goodness, truth, and reciprocity. Room for manipulation and movement in it guarded by a pattern of decisions that exist in any social system, and adaptive behavior studies should pay attention to the response pattern of manipulative as conformity, or a kind of blueprint (Bennett, 1976, 275).

But on the other hand, the concept of culture has made the individual is not free to move, because it is always monitored by the structure and the existing social system. Contrary to what was noted above, Bourdieu proposed the concept of practice model (practice) that emphasizes the reciprocal relationship between the perpetrator and the cultural construction built by the community (by Bourdieu called the objective structure). In reciprocity, the involvement of humans as subjects in the process of the construction of culture is emphasized. According to Bachtiar Alam, Bourdieu tried to explain that among the human role as the subject and culture as an objective structure there is a continuous interaction, where people try to cultivate and mengskontruksi symbols in his interest in social, economic, and political, but rather a symbol of the culture also had a tendency to become a standard structure. Human effort to construct a symbol of culture is what Bourdieu referred to as the practice (Bachtiar Alam, 1998). Or it can be said to be based on a relationship that is the dialectic between structure and agency (Mahar, Richard Harker, Cris Wilkes, 1990.1).

In this practice model approach, individuals are given the space and place to move and free to choose, namely by looking at the practice in the individual / agency. In this practice model approach tries to describe the system as an integral unity with reference to the practices undertaken by the agent. Practice model approach also does not need to say that would be an integration of harmony or balance, as the purpose of adaptation in the previous concept of adaptation is seen that the adaptation will lead to a point balance of the ecosystem. The system then no longer be viewed as a hegemony that dominates any social action of the agent. Practice / practice is defined as an act in terms of pragmatic choices and the selection decision or action menstrategikan active and calculates the actor. And actions the agent can not be separated from the interests and power that belongs to, its role as individuals in society, and depending also on the contextualization of his practice model (Ortner, 1984).

Another implication of this approach is the pattern is no longer seen as an absolute thing exists in culture, no longer even considered. The values are distributed equally to all members are considered as limiting the role of the individual. Values also did not provide an opportunity for invidu opposition. The values share, is also questionable since no values are really the same can be guided, must be in accordance with time and situational contexts that exist. The anti-essentialist even more inclined to use the term knowledge rather than value. Then it becomes important to know where and what kind of process that knowledge gained by individuals. Then how the individual is to keep it, because he is dealing with actual problems and must be in accordance with the goals / interests. Furthermore, how knowledge is transmitted to other individuals or represented in a variety of activities (Vayda, 1994).

Barth explains further that culture is always in the manufacturing process, so that its nature is dynamic, not fixed, and always changing. By Barth explained also that the distinction of the nature of culture as a collective and individual representation is also a distinction is blurred. The perception that perceives culture as a permanent and is a representation of the group based on the fact that see culture as an isolated and belong to social groups, rather than on individuals. Yet the fact that Barth viewed in the obtaining, storage and development of knowledge, individuals are always overwhelmed by the situation of social groups and social contexts, thus causing the knowledge acquired, practiced and can be reproduced relatively the same or different. But in the process, the knowledge gained by individuals is highly divergent and contain high levels of creativity, depending on the praxis that are involved with the context (Barth, 1990).

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