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History Of The Kubu Tribe (Tribe Child)

HISTORY OF CULTUREHistory of the Kubu tribe (Tribe Child) | History of people's camp in a very long story on the coast of Sumatra are connected with the pirates, who brought along their families. Told that in the event of a brother and a woman pirate has a commitment to deal incest, until then the pregnant woman's brother. Partner's name is not known because the camp mentabukan to mention the name of his ancestors.

The couple was cursed by the pirates, and thrown into the bush, and found the first settlement on the river Lalan Kubu. People who have blood lines from this pair called the Bari, "people of the good old times". While the modern history of developing more authentic camp and took his role in the early mid 17th century, where the Queen Senuhun come to the people's camp in Palembang. This faction people serve as a subject prince. "Piagem" copper given by him to the people that still exist among the families who have it.

Ras Veddoid

Loeb attempted to link race with culture. He saw that between race and culture as a whole. This is evident in several accounts of people's camp sees as racial Veddoid. He sees there is continuity and cultural similarities between the races Veddoid. Sakai and the stronghold for example, in addition to having the same type of race, also has a similar culture. Similarities of culture such as appear in a nomadic way of life, how to dress, and habits of people who are not circumcised camp. A habit common to Veddoid society at large, although there are exceptions to the Australian people.

Besides Veddoid, in Sumatra there are two other races of Negrito and Malaysian (Malay). Veddoid own racial traits have high short-and between 153-158 cm for male. They are brown but lighter. Their hair is wavy, coarse black hair, has a protrusion protruding eyes, and forehead is hollowed. Snub their noses, coarse face, and chin are hollowed. Their mouths are large with thin lips. Veddoid is dolichocephalic (skull index of less than 75) and has a small skull. According to Loeb, race Veddoid blood is then mixed with other races. Interest Senoi or Sakai is one example of the remaining races which, according to Loeb Veddoid pristine. Kleiweg de Zwaan, a Dutch scientist, believe that race Veddoid in Sumatra has a blood relationship with the race Vedda in Ceylon / Sri Lanka. Van Dongen even wrote that the camp does not have folkore. It resembles Veddas people in Sri Lanka (Ceylon), who also gained Singhalese culture that has lost its original language and folkorenya.

In Sumatra, Veddoid bloodline is seen very prominently among the people's camp in Palembang. According to Loeb, race veddoid in Sumatra in the two tribes, namely the People's camp and Sakai in Siak province. There are some people in the Malay peninsula which has a resemblance to them. Like the people on the Enggano and Mentawai. Loeb also concluded that the primitive Malay in Sumatra is a mixed race with Veddoid. He referred to Kleiweg de Zwaan which indicates that the primitive culture of the Malay culture has similarities with veddoid. As shown in the Senoi Tribe / Sakai is very typical. They are nomadic, living from hunting and fishing, make your own cabin, and leather wearing apparel of asceticism. In addition they use a blowpipe and poisoned darts, Senoi Tribe also use bows and arrows. They are monogamous and has no formal leaders to lead them. They also do not really learn about agriculture. They have a dog as an animal hunters. Also by Kleiweg de Zwaan, described them do not recognize work related to metal, ceramics, and waeving.

Kubu own people according to Loeb live in the swamps that exist between the river Musi, Rawas, Tembesi, and Trunk today. They gathered and recorded in several villages / hamlets. In 1907 there were 7590 people registered Kubu dispersed in 5 genera. Physically, according to Loeb their lives pretty miserable, especially women. Almost all of them have converted to Islam, but only the transfer of the name only. They are not allowed to eat food that has become their habit, the marks omnivorous, and eat all kinds of animals are bled, although it has decayed.

Relations with the People's camp The Malays

Relations between the two tribes is a trade relationship that is never done directly, but is done by way of "silent barter" or barter in secret. They left his belongings in the bushes, and the Malays who took it and replace it with other goods, as payment.

Although they are less direct intercourse with the Malays, to take languages Loeb Kubu people, social organizations, and religious people of Palembang Malay. He saw that a lot of cultural elements drawn from the camp elements of Malay culture. More precisely, he said there was a impersonation of cultural values of the Malays. There are several facts which he phrases to reinforce his opinion. For example a statement about the amount of more than one wife. 

Another example he gives is how people camp and finish the problem with outsiders. In solving the problem, naturally there is no war between the various communities Persons camps, or by outsiders. And Loeb saw that the way of resolving it, they get from the Malays. Or the religion of camp, which he values is the initial form of the confidence of the Malays was when they still believe in Hinduism. Although he knows just a little know about the original keyakian Kubu people, he saw that the practice of shamanism people's camp has shown that these people have been affected by the Malays in the practice and doctrine, long before they have a concern for many adopted in the way of culture the material. He also stated unequivocally that in practice there is no view about shamanism Kubu, this is a Hindu and Malay.

Loeb saw the camp late in the changing pattern of his life, and resume his life as a wanderer in the bush until the Dutch government forced them to settle down and do the farming. Although at this camp refused to work as usual and bath (hlm.282). He sees a big change in life occurs when a person's camp in Palembang Dutch government took the materials from them and use the Malay people to collect taxes under the supervision of the Dutch government. Natural resource products from the forest are collected as taxes. And in 1890, when oil was found in Palembang, People's camp since it began learning to use the money (p. 282).

Kubu Kubu Wild and the Civilized

Loeb categorizing people's camp in two types, namely the wild and the civilized stronghold. He distinguishes based on the pattern of his life. For example, he calls the camp a wild are nomadic people whose life (wandering) and the camp is a civilized society that has lived settled. He gave examples of how the camp was a wild, like Kubu Ridan is almost longer than 1 month in one place, sometimes only a week, depending on the keadaanya, like the trees around it are just menawakan little food, or not enough fish in the river or swamp- swamp, and they can not get his favorite food, turtles they would move. This is different from the people who settled Kubu, who tried to live from agriculture. Also in social organization, a civilized people camp / stay divided on the basis of brothers, in their imitation to their neighbors, the wild camp has only a family organization (p. 284).

Loeb saw categorization Kubu Kubu is settled and the wild as a result of coercion by the Dutch government. At that time the Dutch government to force people to want to settle down and do Kubu agricultural businesses. Yet there is one faction that refused to work as usual and bath (hlm.282). He sees a big change in life occurs when a person's camp in Palembang Dutch government took the materials from them and use the Malay people to collect taxes under the supervision of the Dutch government. Natural resource products from the forest are collected as taxes. And in 1890, when oil was found in Palembang.

Loeb saw a wild camp to have a low character. As apparent when he talks about food and eating patterns of people who do not know the camp wild rice, and unusual to eat it. He said that they would not eat cats, tigers, and elephants. They ate wild boar, all species of monkeys, and turtles, animals that are not eaten by the Malays. They are very happy with bananas. They prefer to eat fruits, bulbous plant (root earth), worms / caterpillars, lizards, and snakes. They dig to find worms and plants are spread using the flakes are formed of bamboo, or a machete that was imported from the Malays. All the food was burnt on the fire, playing around a bit and then they eat. They do not use salt.

For the record stigma given to their name, the camp did not want to be called a civilized way, they prefer to be called as The Land or Sea, residents that live on land or river. In 1906, Van Dongen, associated with an isolated camp in the swamps Ridan River where they had left the camp name. For more looks civilized, they use your words.

But in reality, not all cultural values are lost at Kubu Kubu people who settled. What happens is that the forms of variation of the values ??that already exist. He cited the "melangan", the tradition of leaving the dead or dying by his family. He saw that the exception in a civilized person's camp when the ill are children. They do not necessarily leave the sick, as did the wild camp, but he will see him first. After the perceived likelihood of recovery, he will take care of the sick. If the patient dies, they'll go elsewhere. As he expressed,

"Even among civilized stronghold, where a sick man and believed that they would not recover, the family of the sick will flee into the bush. If the children are dying, only the parents to keep him company. This is a sign that people are dying to bring the disagreement. When the family left the sick man, however is also someone in the family, usually brothers, returned home after 3 days. If the patient remains alive, he tried to heal it. If the sick person dies, the person investigating will tell women and children who are in the bush. And then his family would return home and sowed the rice around it.

Social Organizations

In social organization, Loeb Kubu people talking about marriage, birth and death processes of Kubu. In marriage, never known in their native laws about incest or system of relationships. Schebesta wrote that that at the time, family relationships terdekatpun be married, and no rejection in their custom. Loeb in his book, explains some of the traditions of the Wilderness he thinks marriage is simple. For example, he describes the process of their marriage,

How do young men and women ran together into the bush and make connections which lead them to marry. The girls will marry soon after puberty. There were no ceremonies, but the pair came to the elders / elders and formalize their relationship. People who are the oldest of the two families featuring a wedding rites. The couple, who married with the person sitting next to another on the ground. Parents ask the wedding couple if the woman will desire to get married, and she repeated what her wishes. Then the old man made a statement that if there is someone who will meet with the couple should not bother because they're married. 

According to Loeb and they do not recognize a party unknown dowry / bride price. People's camp says that the marriage pair formally obtain approval from their neighbors by putting together a small finger to the right of the couple as a sign they had put together.

Faction among the more civilized, Kubu Klumpang, marriage also is also shown by the two members of the elders / elders from both families, and the elders gave her permission first, but never responded when the mating lari.sebagai signs of marital couples eating rice wrapped in leaves banana.

Divorce is done without ceremony, and men can be having an affair with a woman or women who have been married. One young boy encountered wild Kubu Van Dongen has been cheated twice by the same woman. In the case of divorce the children will participate with their parents that they like, but in general they naturally join her mother.

When pregnant, women are forbidden to look at / look dead, elephant, or buffalo. The birth process must take place in the bushes. Women who give birth assisted by another woman or her husband. Newborn child is not washed, but cleaned with a leaf and tapa clothing. Mother can run as fast as possible, sometimes right away or the day after giving birth, she was alone or was accompanied by her husband in search of food. A faction do not like when his wife gave birth to twins or triplets, so he must work harder to support them. He saw that a woman who gave birth to a child such as a goat that gave birth to many offspring in one birth process.

The children follow their parents, stay and explore shared food with them, until they turn 10 or 12 years. Then they are able to take care of herself, wearing their own clothes, and build a shelter near the cottage of his parents. During this time they must find their own food and no longer eat with people who are older.

Kubu Everyone has a name, but their names are known only by those who exist in a single village or a syrup. Community of other families do not know their names, and it refers only to the people who inhabit a particular river. Kubu people who are still in a settlement comes rarely associated with other communities, there is no sense of fear, puberty ceremonies, or events / activities together.

If there is a faction who died suddenly, sick or dying seorangnya one that ensures that he will die, then his family will leave it, leave a dead or dying in the neighborhoods, and create new a new shelter to great distance. No more danger that taken of the sick. In a way, if a faction of finding the point / place where a person dies, or is the trace of the stamps are dead, they will run away as fast as they could. Escape the action of the deceased referred to as "melangan".

Having wrapped the corpse in traditional dress, berbariung on the base of the bed and took him to the grave, and then inserted in the hole depth of about 3 feet. After putting the food in the cemetery, the ceremony has been completed. There is another purpose of the position of the body between the civilized camp including placement in tree hollows, or leave them in a hut and set fire near the building.

At this time, after the death of her husband, a widow will go melangan into the bush for 3 months. After 3 months in the bush, the widow will go back and get married again. If the widow were married before the time specified, he must pay a fine to the family of the deceased as adultery / promiscuity.


Forbes, a British writer who visited the camp in the year 1885, wrote "They seem to have no idea about kedaan after death. They say, When we die, we die. "Forbes knows that oang Kubu avoid death, in his article he writes," In the wild they kedaan they leave their deaths are not buried in a place where they died, giving a place even after the widespread where it spread ". Hagen also wrote that the camp does not believe in the soul that lives on after death. Kubu people liberate their death to wild animals / wild.

According to Van Dongen, Kubu People trust based on the belief that every human being is made up mascara (material), spirit (semangat.jiwa, objects of thought) and njawa (which produce health / substance). Material body is equated with the carpenter. The soul is in njawa, or breath, which will not leave until the man dies the body, and spirit. Spirit is the spirit or the power to think, is that it can leave the body and wanders, just like a dream. In death njawa and spirit will return to heaven and they are accepted by God or (Radja Njawa) for good or evil. Radja Njawa can ditranlasikan, according to Van Dongen, is all soul / spirit, the spirit world, and the strength of spirit / soul.

People know the shaman's camp, which he called as a magician. People's camp claimed that the first shaman called magician kujug, achieving a degree and have the power to free the ghost, with her dog (kujug) back to life. Then, each region sends someone to study under the supervision of pilot kujug, until every region gain malimnya own head. In the present word "magician" is a shorthand form of "quack bermalim".

Malim head coming generations, from father to eldest son. At this time the chief pilot called pengasu (asu is a dog). Malim head acts as the acting head of the liberation, religious ceremonies, and religious gatherings are important. Other societies, where people who helped, usually the students are usually magician.

In the same way as a magician kujug assisted by his wife when he brings his dog back to kidupan back. By cleaning out the evil spirits of the animals, so now every pilot pengasu have his wife as a maid in the ceremony. The wife then get the nickname ulubalang.

If someone is sick, the pilot called to cast out demons that exist in the patient. The procession is called bermalim. There are several different ways of exorcism formulation by using so-called pious songs, there's a ghost expulsion religious meeting not much different from other processes. The day before the healing process it must be prepared, and prepare the food as needed. All the food was brought in the "seven", there are 7 kinds of goods.

Malim which serves as a maid and ulubalang, do not eat anything during the night of the exorcism, tetrapi they smoke and chew betel. If there are other oprang eat, they will sit at a distance. Malim head, and usually aides as well, closing the hole in their body as long as they perform their duties. They may hear anything, see anything, even yawning or abdominal pain, ketuka concentrate. This is also the reason that the important religious meeting was held tonight hari.Menjelang rising sun, the magician and his assistant chief purify himself by bathing. Then wash their bodies with lime.

The healing process can be done at home who are sick if there is enough space, but is usually performed in the hall, communal house. A cylindrical drum, tamboirin used as the music, which is done by hand.

Religious meeting (seance) is done to make relationships with people who have died consist of 33 songs (pious). The last two are very important. Saleh delivered in ways: first, the magician tells the / extract important than pious, both tambourine in time and people were standing. This is then followed by dancing, in which all people participate and then terminated by the pilot alone. Third is a dance that became widespread, then magician would fall unconscious. San fourth, Malim then awakened by being hit by his own hand. Chief pilot and bless the sick and the public, and advise on the pious given.

When the pilot's head is in kedaan trance, he could see the sick soul above the trees, or drift in the house roof, and under the influence of evil spirits. Spirit healer, the soul which is the first head malaim, kujug magician, magician takes the place of residence in the head after the pious to 25, and remained until the end of healing. Ghosts, however jugam not speak through the mouth of the magician.


Loeb saw one faction within a cultural evolutionary perspective, he realized something was right. As he was saying in the introduction to his book, that he chose to approach the theoretical evolutionary nature. A theoretical thought that when the time was being prominent. He made contact with scientists evolusianari, like Keller, Kroeber, and Lowie (p. 3). So then later seems reasonable that a comparison between the cultures of people's camp, as a race Veddoid and Malay culture, as the Malay race. Where both cultural comparison is seen in a perspective of the continuity of cultural development which departs from simple to the complex shape. Culture Kubu people, seen as early forms of Malay culture that looks simple. He sees culture as complex as the Malay culture is a culture that has a higher degree, compared with the culture of a primitive people's camp. For him, culture of the Malays has been a cultural reference point for the Kubu. As he explained when he revealed that the social organization, language, and religion of the camp is a form of adoption of Malay culture to gradually lost their original culture merges into the Malay culture. As he expressed

"There is no reason untuik doubt that the culture at a time is a complex, at least like the Sakai in the Malay peninsula. During pushed back into the raw-marsh area in Palembang, and surrounded by a Malay camp where people become parasites, and from whom they are gradually getting a foreign language and culture, they have lost their indigenous knowledge and the arts. During that time there kebahayaan to use a biological analogy in conformity with human culture, because there is no doubt that people who are just as the parasite responsible for the decline as a plant or animal parasites. Mentawai people are like parasites in people of Malay to iron. But then these people have a geographically more varied situations. Therefore, when they get what they need from strangers, they carefully remove all of which might endanger their existence. "(P. 289).

He also revealed that in accordance with its monotonous and simple material culture, the camp also has a limited social and religious development. Where what they elaborasikan is the origin of the Malays (p. 283). In looking at the religious people's camp, he saw the same or in accordance with an early form of the confidence of the Malays who used to be Hindu. Loeb's camp believe religion is actually a form of religion which is taken from the culture of the Malays in the past.

As another consequence from the perspective of cultural evolution of ethics is the view of the writer when he saw a culture. Loeb also conduct an assessment of the culture of Kubu. As he saw the camp is a race that decreased levels (a degenerate race). Or those who have a low character. As he said that

Kubu no contact with water during his life, with the exception of the rain that they can not avoid. The water is cool and makes them sick. When they are dirty or smeared with mud, they will clean it by using a machete or bamboo. Based on this refusal, they smelled very bad and they are susceptible to skin disease. They show the dexterity to avoid all places wet / watery when traveling through the bush. Since they are accustomed to living in a dark thicket, they also do not like sunlight. Women never cut their hair, but the men in her hair cut with a machete. 

The origin of the words Kubu, Lubu, and Ulu. The term arose among the villagers, Kubu means orang-orang/seseorang who ate everything, including food that is not clean, not where they live / lived in the house, and do not clean their bodies as a result of their rejection of the water. Also, the categorization of people Kubu civilized and wild. This categorization is biased because in pengkategoriannya, he based on the observation of visible symptoms alone.

From the methodological side, he has many weaknesses. He is a lot bases his writings on some of his old ethnographic writings of foreign scholars such as Dutch, French, and Germans who have many weaknesses in data collection techniques. While doing field work he did for several years, namely from the year 1926 - 1927 and 1928 - 1929, he was aware of the deficiency.

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