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The Establishment of the Kingdom of Majapahit

HISTORY OF CULTUREThe Establishment of the Kingdom of Majapahit | When Singasari fall into the hands Jayakatwang, Raden Wijaya (in-law Kertanegara) fled to Madura. The assistance Arya Wiraraja, he received well by Jayakatwang back and given a parcel of land in Drag (Mojokerto). 

When Kublai Khan's army invaded Singasari, Raden Wijaya pretending to help attack Jayakatwang. However, after Jayakatwang killed, Raden Wijaya turns against the Mongols and managed to throw. After that, Raden Wijaya established Majapahit Empire (1293) and crowned himself with the title Sri Kertarajasa Jayawardhana. 

Political developments kingdom majapahit 

1. Government Raden Wijaya (Kertarajasa) 
To reduce the possibility of rebellion, Raden Wijaya (Kertarajasa) perform the following steps. 

Four daughters marry Kertanegara with the aim of preventing the occurrence of a power struggle among members of the royal family. Kertanegara eldest daughter, Dyah Sri Tribhuaneswari, become empress and son from the marriage Jayanegara, made by the crown prince. Kertanegara youngest daughter, Dewi Gayatri Dyah be Rajapatni. Of these women, Kertarajasa has two daughters, was appointed Jayawisnuwardhani Tribhuwanatunggadewi Bhre Kahuripan and Rajadewi Maharajasa appointed Bhre Daha. The other two daughters married Kertanegara Kertarajasa is Dyah Goddess Narendraduhita and Dyah Goddess Prajnaparamita. Of the two daughters, Kertarajasa has no son. 

Provide an appropriate position and gifts to supporters, for example, the headman Kudadu acquire land in Surabaya and Arya Wiraraja given authority over the area until Blambangan Lumajang. Leadership Kertarajasa wise enough cause to be safe and peaceful kingdom. He died in 1309 and was buried in Sumping (Blitar) as Shiva and in Antahpura (in the city of Majapahit) as the Buddha. Arca manifestation is Harikaya, Vishnu and Shiva is depicted in a statue. His replacement is Jayanegara. 

2. Government Jayanegara 
Jayanegara reign filled with rebellion due to his leadership is less authoritative and less wise. Revolts were as follows. 

  • Ranggalawe Rebellion in 1231. This rebellion can be extinguished in 1309. 
  • Ox-Sora Rebellion in 1311. 
  • Rebellion demung Interpreter (1313) followed by the Blue Elephant Rebellion. 
  • Nambi Rebellion in 1319. Nambi is Rakryan Patih Majapahit own. 
  • Rebellion Kuti in 1319. Rebellion is the most large and dangerous. Kuti occupied the capital of the kingdom so Jayanegara forced to flee to areas Bedander. Jayanegara then protected by the army leadership Bhayangkari Gajah Mada. Thanks to the leadership of Gajah Mada, Rebellion can Kuti extinguished. 
However, although many put down the uprising, Jayanegara actually died as a result was killed by one of tabibnya named Tanca. He then buried in the temple Singgapura in Kapopongan. 

3. Government Tribhuwanatunggadewi 

Therefore Jayanegara not berputra, while Gayatri as Rajapatni has become nuns, the throne of the Kingdom of Majapahit submitted to Tribhuwanatunggadewi Jayawisnuwardhana (1328 - 1350) who helped her husband run the government, Kertawardhana. Tribhuwanatunggadewi reign marred domestic problems, the outbreak of rebellion Sadeng. This rebellion can be quenched by Gajah Mada University who was then newly appointed Patih Daha. 

4. Government Hayam Wuruk 

Tribhuwanatunggadewi forced to abdicate the throne in 1350 because Rajapatni Dyah Goddess Gayatri died. He was succeeded by his son, who called Hayam Wuruk who was born in the year 1334. Hayam Wuruk took the throne at the age of 16 years with a degree Rajasanegara. In running the government, he was accompanied by Mahapatih Gajah Mada.


In the book mentioned that in the days Negarakertagama Hayam Wuruk, experience the glory of Majapahit Kingdom and has a vast territory. Broad power of Majapahit at the time was almost the size of the Republic of Indonesia today. However, after the death of Gajah Mada University who died in 1364, Hayam Wuruk unable to get an equivalent replacement. Majapahit kingdom began to decline. 

Majapahit conditions are on the verge of destruction when Hayam Wuruk also died in 1389. After him, Majapahit often hit by civil war and one by one the power of Majapahit was let go. Along with that, came the Muslim kingdoms on the coast. In 1526, after the collapse of the Majapahit Kingdom was invaded by Islamic forces from Demak under the leadership of Raden Patah. 

Majapahit Kingdom government structure 

In the structure of government in Majapahit, the king regarded as the incarnation of gods and holds the highest authority in government. The wheels of government run king was assisted by the king's son, relatives king, and some government officials. 

Before the post king, crown prince is usually given the power as viceroy (Rajakumara or Yuwaraja). For example, before the crowned king, Hayam Wuruk first appointed as Rajakumara based in Jimna. 

King also assisted by a council consideration or Bhatara Saptaprabu kingdom. The task of this institution is to give consideration to the king. Members of this council is the king's relatives. For religious matters, the king assisted by a board called Dharmadyaksa. Ri Dharmadyaksa Kasainan charge of religious affairs and Dharmadyaksa ri Shiva Kasogatan charge of Buddhist affairs. Religious officials are assisted by 7 Dharma Upapati, namely the Panget i Tirwan, i Kandamulri, i Mangkuri, i Paratan, i Jambi, i Kandangan Rase, and i Kandangan Atuha. Aside from being a religious officials, they are also a group of scholars 

Cultural life of the Majapahit Kingdom 

Majapahit era produced many literary works. Literary periodization Majapahit period can be divided into two, namely literature Majapahit era beginning and end of the Majapahit era literature. Majapahit era early literary works is a book written by MPU Prapanca Negarakertagama (1365), the book of essays Sutasoma Tantular MPU, MPU essay book Wiwaha Tantular Arjuna, the book Kunjarakama (anonymous), and the book Parthayajna (anonymous). 

Majapahit era literary works written in the Java language end in the form of song (ballad) and prose (prose). Works of literature in this age is Pararaton book that contains history of the kings of Majapahit, the book contains about events Sundayana Bubat, Surandaka book tells the story of Sora Rebellion in Lumajang, Ranggalawe book about rebellion Ranggalawe of Tuban, the book contains the history of Panji Wijayakrama Raden Wijaya, Java Vsana book tells the story of the conquest of Bali by Gajah Mada University, the book tells of the chaos USANA Bali Bali Maya Danawa due to malignancy, Pamancangah books, books Panggelaran, Charcoal Candidates books, and book Korawasrama. 

Another type of cultural heritage are the temples of the Majapahit Kingdom. Majapahit relics Temples, among others, Sumberjati temple, temple Sanggapura, Panataran temple, and temple near Porong Pari. Candi Pari has a privilege, which shows the architecture of the building style of Campa. 

The collapse of the Majapahit Kingdom 

Setbacks Majapahit had its roots in the death of Gajah Mada in 1364. Hayam Wuruk can not replace the secakap Gajah Mada. Positions that are held by Gajah Mada University (during his lifetime, Gajah Mada University holds so much position) is given to three people. After Hayam Wuruk died in 1389 at Majapahit actually lost ground. 

Some of the factors causing the decline of Majapahit as follows. 
  1. No more prominent in the central government that can defend the unity of the territory after Gajah Mada Hayam Wuruk and died. 
  2. Majapahit governance structure similar to the state system of trade in modern times and the amount of freedom given to the area facilitate the colonies to break away so note that in the government center is empty of power. 
  3. The occurrence of civil war, among them is the famous Paregreg War (1401 - 1406) conducted by Bhre Wirabhumi against the center of the Kingdom of Majapahit. Bhre Wirabhumi Blambangan given power in the region. However, he was ambitious to become king of Majapahit. In folklore, known as Minakjingga Bhre Wirabhumi who was defeated by Raden Elephant or Damarwulan. In addition to the civil war, there was also undertaken efforts to separate themselves from Kediri Girindrawardhana (1478). 
  4. The entry of Islam since the time of the kingdom of Kediri in East Java raises new strength against the power of Majapahit. Many of the regents on the coast who converted to Islam because of commercial interest and turned against Majapahit.

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