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Diverse Cultures In Indonesia

HISTORY OF CULTURE Diverse Cultures In Indonesia | Cultural diversity of Indonesia or "cultural diversity" is the necessity that exists on earth Indonesia. Indonesia's cultural diversity is something that can not be denied its existence. In the context of understanding pluralistic society, in addition to cultural or ethnic groups, people of Indonesia are also composed of a variety of regional cultures are territorial, which is the meeting of different cultures or ethnic groups that exist in the area. With a population of 200 million people where they live scattered island-island in Indonesia. They also inhabit the region with varying geographical conditions. Starting from the mountains, forest edges, coastal, lowland, rural, to urban areas.

It is also related to the level of civilization of their own ethnic groups and different communities in Indonesia. Meetings with outside cultures also affect the process of cultural assimilation in Indonesia thus increasing manifold types of cultures that exist in Indonesia. Then also developing and expanding the great religions in Indonesia contributed to the development of Indonesian culture so memcerminkan particular religious culture. It could be said that Indonesia is one country with the culture or the level heterogenitasnya keaneragaman high. Not only the cultural diversity of ethnic groups but also the cultural diversity in the context of civilization, traditionally up to modern, and territorial.

With the diversity of Indonesian culture can be said to have advantages over other nations. Indonesia has a portrait of a full and varied culture. And last but not least, the socio-cultural and political fabric of society Indonesia has a history of the dynamics of interaction between cultures that assembled long ago. Interaction between culture woven not only covers between different ethnic groups, but also includes among civilizations in the world. Labuhnya Portuguese ships at Bantam in the Middle Ages such as Indonesia have been open to the closed circle of the international community at the time. The relationship between the merchant and coastal gujarat Java also provides an important sense in establishing interactions among civilizations that exist in Indonesia. Allusion-allusions of this civilization has been basically build the nation elasitas Indonesia in interacting with a difference. On the other hand the Indonesian people are also able to probe and develop local cultural allusions in the midst of inter-civilization.

Evidence of History

History proves that the culture in Indonesia are able to live side by side, complementary, and or run in parallel. For example, culture or royal palace that stood in line in parallel with the culture of hunting gathering specific communities. In the present context we can see how the culture of urban society can be run parallel with the culture of rural or rural, even with hunting gathering culture that lived far remote. Inter-cultural relationships are intertwined in a frame can run "Unity in Diversity", in which we can interpret that the context of diversity is not just referring to the sheer diversity of ethnic groups but to the cultural context.

Constituted also that by the number of ethnic groups more or less ethnic 700'an across the country, with various types of diverse social groups, and religious diversity, Indonesian society is a pluralistic society that really fragile. Fragile in the sense of the diversity of difference that has the potential conflicts that dipunyainya will also be more sharply. The differences that exist in society will be a driving force to strengthen the conflict issues that arise in the midst of a society where conflict actually arose from other issues that are not related to cultural diversity. As the cases of conflict arising in Indonesia where it is stated as a case of religious and ethnic conflict. The reality of these conflicts didominsi by other issues that are more politically and economically. Indeed there is no single cause in the case of conflicts that exist in Indonesia. However, several cases of conflicts that exist in Indonesia began raising questions about the diversity that we have and how it should manage it properly.

The role of government: diversity guards

Indeed the role of government in the context of maintaining cultural diversity is very important. In this context the government serves as a protector and patron for its citizens, as well as the guardian of order the interaction between cultural groups that exist in Indonesia. But unfortunately the government that we consider to be the protector and patron, on the other side was not able to provide enough space for all the groups that live in Indonesia. For example how the government used to be no room for ethnic groups indigenous minorities to develop in accordance with their culture. Cultures that developed in accordance with the ethnic was not taken seriously by the government. Cultures of minority ethnic groups has been replaced by the dominant culture of the local area, thus making the culture of indigenous ethnic minority groups to be eliminated. Another example is quite prominent is how such artworks culture results had been seen in the perspective of the government.

The government determines the merits of a product based on the importance of culture. Strong implication of the political culture in the past (New Order) is a homogenization of culture to be "Indonesia". In the sense not to appreciate the differences that grow and develop naturally, but is turned off in such a way as to be equal to the cultural identity of the so-called "national culture of Indonesia". In this context of cultural homogenization process then leads to a growing culture in society, including indigenous cultures or ethnic groups and marginalized groups, become retarded and cornered. Like for example with a uniform form of bureaucracy that exist at the village level for all regions in Indonesia in accordance with the form of villages in Java, thus causing the loss of traditional authority in local culture.

No doubt the process of cultural marginalization that occurs above the group can not be separated with a concept called as national culture, which is also related to the political direction of the national culture at the time. The existence of national culture really is a concept of a general nature and are usually in the context of the history of the modern state in which it is used by countries to strengthen the sense of a diverse society and come from different cultural backgrounds. But in his journey, the government strengthened its national cultural boundaries by using the forces of political, economic, and military has. This situation occurs associated with the idea that seeing that efforts to form a national culture is also an attempt to find letigimasi ideology for the sake of strengthening the role of government in front of its citizens. Not surprisingly then, if the visible surface is a symptom of how the government is using all means of political power and rule approach to "turn off" the local cultures that exist in the area or fringe groups, where cultures are considered incompatible with the national culture.

After the 1998 reform, emerged a new awareness of how to address the differences and diversity are owned by the Indonesian nation. That is to build community awareness of Indonesia that are multicultural, where the main reference for the establishment of a multicultural society is multibudayaisme Indonesia, which is an ideology that recognizes and glorifies the differences in the equality of both individually and culturally (Suparlan, 1999). In this multicultural model, a society (including the nation such as Indonesia) is seen as having a culture that generally accepted in the society s type like a mosaic. In the mosaic covered all cultures of the societies that make up a smaller realization of a larger community, which has a culture that is like a mosaic. Multibudayaisme model is actually being used as a reference by the founders of the Indonesian nation in designing what is named as the national culture, as revealed in the explanation of Article 32 UUD 1945, which reads: "cultural nation (Indonesia) is a cultural peaks in the region".

As an ideology, multicultural infrastructure must be supported with a strong democratic system and supported by the ability of the government apparatus that qualified for multibudayaisme key is equality before the law. Countries in this case serves as a facilitator as well as guard the pattern of interaction between culture groups to stay in balance between central and local interests, the key is managing the government on the balance between two extreme points of locality and centrality. Like for example the case of Papua, where the government allowed to be grown in culture Papuanya, but economically done a fair division of the economic pie. In the context of the time, the product or the results of culture can be seen in 2 prespekif the culture prevailing in the present and the remains or cultural product in the past.

Maintaining cultural diversity

In the present context, the richness of culture will be a lot to do with cultural products related third culture form of cultural knowledge, cultural attitudes or cultural practices that are still valid, and physical products are tangible cultural artifacts or banguna. Some issues related to third culture form which can be seen is, among others, are products of art and literature, traditions, lifestyles, value systems, and belief systems. Cultural diversity in the context of this study is more commonly defined as the product or result of culture that existed at present. In the context of a multicultural society, where cultural diversity is one thing to be guarded and respected existence.

Cultural diversity is cuts cultural differences from community groups who live in Indonesia. If we refer to the UNESCO Convention 2005 (Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions) on cultural diversity or "cultural diversity", defined as the cultural richness of cultural diversity is seen as a way of existing in a cultural group or community to express its expression . It is not only related to the cultural diversity that became cultural background, but also variations in the way of artistic creation, production, disseminasi, distribution and penghayatannya, whatever the meaning and uses of technology. Or termed by Unesco in 2005 as a UNESCO convention document "cultural expression" (cultural expression). The content of cultural diversity will be referring to the symbolic meaning, artistic dimension and cultural values behind them.

In this context of cultural knowledge will contain knowledge about the symbols used by the owner to understand and interpret their environment. Cultural knowledge will usually intangible cultural values ??of ethnic and cultural values of Indonesia, where in it contains the wisdom of local culture, local wisdom and local tribes. Local wisdom in the form of local cultural values are reflected in the tradition of traditional ceremonies and artwork ethnic groups and indigenous peoples in the archipelago. While the cultural behavior related to behavior or actions resulting from cultural values that exist. Forms of cultural behavior can was prepared in the form of daily behavior, patterns of interaction, community subsistence activities, and so on. Or we might call a cultural activity. In a cultural artifact, the Indonesian local wisdom embodied in works of art or cultural objects (cultural heritage). If we see the explanation above, the actual wealth of Indonesia has diverse forms. Not only the variety of forms but also about its origin. Cultural diversity is the real wealth of the nation's culture of Indonesia.

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