Recent Articles

Development of Learning Arabic

HISTORY OF CULTURE | Development of Learning Arabic | Development of Learning Arabic in the Islamic World, Talking about the Arabic language in the context of history can not be separated from the trip spread of Islam. Vice versa, to assess on Islam means also learning Arabic as a mandatory requirement for mastering the content and the content of al-Qur'an al-Hadith as the primary source of Islam.

History records that the Arabic language began to spread beyond the Arabian peninsula since the 1st century H or the 7th century AD, follow the movements of the spread of Islam everywhere. It includes the spread of Byzantine territory in the north, Persia to the east, and west Africa until ndalusia. Until the Khilafah Islamiyah period, Arabic became the official language used for religious socialization, culture, administration, and science. Held a strategic position of this Arabic language surpass all that ever existed before, such as Greek, Persian, Coptic, and Syriac.

Through historical analysis, it is known that the presence of an intense interaction between Arabs and Europeans in the inheritance of ancient Greek science through the translation from Greek into Arabic and from Arabic into Latin, so in megkaji literary texts and the religious allow the common purpose of teaching and learning between the two languages. Thus, one may suspect a common way of teaching and learning Arabic with Latin language prevailing at that time, the grammar-translation method (tariqa al-qawa'id wa al-tarjamah), foreign language teaching methods that are considered the oldest so it is unknown appears and its development history. This method is predicted to emerge since people feel the need to learn a foreign language. This method has been used since the rise of Europe looks on the 15th century, although its name with a new grammar-translation method known in the 19th century. Therefore, it appears without theoretical foundation, both in linguistic, psychological, or educational.

However, when the glory days of Islam increasingly dimmed by the end of the 18th century, while Europe experienced the Renaissance (renaissance or enlightenment), the wind began learning the Arabic language changed direction. Progress is happening in Europe led the Arab world and Islam to turn around to find droplets of science that was originally derived from the progress of their own civilization. This is where the theory of Hegelian dialectics occur. Advanced Western civilization because of Islamic civilization advances past, the rise of Islam and Arabs later influenced by the progress of Western civilization. Through the invasion of Napoleon Bonaparte to Egypt in 1798 AD, the Arab and Islamic world began to open again to watch and imitate a variety of advancements that occurred in Europe.

From that instant, Egypt held a lot to gain knowledge and culture of diplomatic relations with Europe, especially France. In language teaching, the methods developed in Europe was adopted and used widely in Egypt, ranging from-grammatical method tarjamah up with the direct method (direct method / al-tariqa al-mubasyirah). Learning Arabic is growing and gaining momentum when there is invasion of Christian missionaries from the United Arab country invaded the northern part (Sham). Since the initial deployment of the mission, they used Arabic as the official language, it is also the methodology developed learning Arabic. Thus was born a few books relating to the science of the Arabic language including Arabic dictionaries. Al-Munjid is one of the historical evidence where a Christian as Louis Ma'luf directly involved in the development of Arabic.

From the historical background, it can be said that the development of learning methodologies Latin languages ​​in Europe, and English in Europe and America are instrumental in advancing the development of Arabic language teaching methodology. Development of Learning Arabic in Indonesia:

1. As a Language Arabic Religion Verbal

As a symbol of the linguistic expression of Islamic teaching, learning Arabic is the first in Indonesia to meet the needs of a Muslim pilgrimage rituals, especially praying. In accordance with these requirements, the material being taught is limited to prayers and the prayers of short letters of the Koran commonly known as juz 'amma. The method is a method commonly used abjadiyah (alphabetical method) is known by the name of the method baghdadiyah. This method emphasizes the ability to read the letters of the Qur'an (al-al-hija'iyah letters) that started from: (a) mention of the letter with his name one by one from alif samapai yes' in alphabetical order until the students memorize the names of letter separately or one by one, then (b) taught the words consisting of two letters, then three letters, and so on are given in stages, then increased in (c) teaching vowel, beginning with the letter mentions, along with harakatnya name.

2. In Understanding Media Arabic Religion

Along with the development time, methods and patterns of learning first began to experience a shift in the upper and progression toward more meaningful. Learning Arabic verbalistik as to which the above is not enough, because the Qur'an is not only to be read as a means of worship, but also as a way of life that must be understood meaning and practiced its teachings. Hence comes the Arabic language learning in the form of both in order explore the teachings of Islam.

Learning Arabic is a second form grows and develops in various boarding schools salaf. The material taught covers fiqh, aqeedah, morality, hadith, tafsir, and language sciences like Nahwu rab, sharaf, and Balaghah with Arabic-language textbooks written by scholars from various centuries in the past. Learning method used is method-grammatical tarjamah (tariqa al-wa qawa'id al-tarjamah/grammar-translation method) with presentation techniques that are still relatively traditional, in which the teacher (Kiai) and the disciples (students) each holding book (the book). Teachers read and interpret word for word or sentence by sentence into the language of the typical regional boarding schools that have been brought near to the sensitivity of Arabic. While grammar (qawa'id) inserted into the Arabic language certain words as symbols that indicate the function of a word in a sentence. Students simply records what each word or sentence spoken Arabic meaning by the teacher, without any verbal interaction between the active and productive and santrinya kiai.

3. As the Arabic Media Communications

Although the pattern of learning the Arabic language in the second form above is the dominant force in various boarding schools Salaf until now, and acknowledged its contribution in providing an understanding of Indonesian Muslims against the teachings of his religion, but demands the world of communication, in turn, leads the new changes in the pattern peembelajaran Arabic. Interaction between nations requires Muslims to not just have the ability to speak Arabic receptive (passive), but language skills are more active and productive. The spirit of reform is reinforced by the emergence of young Muslim scholars and intellectuals with the feel of fresh thinking, After returning from studying in their country of education centers in the Middle East, especially Egypt.

During this period the direct method (direct method / al-tariqa al-mubasyirah) began to be applied in learning the Arabic language in Indonesia. Teaching Arabic there are three forms in various boarding schools or institutions of modern Islamic education since the early twentieth century 19. Beginning in Padang Panjang by cleric Abdullah Ahmad, Madrasah Adabiyah (1909), two brothers of al-Yunusi Zaenuddin Labay Labay and el-Rahmah Yunusiyah, Diniyah Son (1915) and Diniyah Princess (1923), and the cleric Mahmud Yunus, Normal School (1931 ). Then the grown-developed by K.H. Imam Zarkasyi in Kulliyatul Mu'allimin al-Islamiyah Gontor Ponorogo.

In the third form of this teaching system, religious instruction in the first year is given as a basic course in Indonesian language. Meanwhile, most of the attention devoted to students' Arabic language lessons with the direct method. In the second year, the science of Arabic grammar (Nahwu-sharaf) began to be given in Arabic with an inductive method (al-tariqa al-istiqra'iyah), coupled with intensive training qira'ah (reading), insha '(writing), and muhadatsah (speaking / conversation). Religious studies are also presented in Arabic. In a six-year study period (post-primary schools), a modern Muslim college graduates (equivalent to high school graduates / high school) have been able to communicate with Arabic orally and written, and be able to read Arabic books in various subjects of knowledge.

During its development, learning Arabic in the modern Islamic universities are not only using the direct method but following the reforms that occurred in the world of language learning, such as aural-oral method (al-tariqa al-al-syafawiyah sam'iyah) and the communicative approach ( al-tariqa al-itthishaliyah).

4. Forms of Integration

Furthermore, from the obsession of the observer learning the Arabic language who want to integrate between the forms of learning Arabic for the second and third, then comes the fourth form of learning Arabic is the form of integration. In this phase the goal of learning the Arabic language has two directions, namely learning Arabic for language proficiency and mastery learning Arabic for the acquisition of knowledge by using a vehicle Arabic. In addition, the type of language being studied include two languages, namely Arabic classical and modern. Merger is on one side have an advantage because it can empower learners competence in a comprehensive manner, but on the other hand gave birth to uncertainties, due to limited brain cells learners to accommodate both simultaneously.

Ketidakmenetuan can be seen from various aspects. First from the goal, there is confusion between learning to master the Arabic language skills or knowledge as a tool to control other vehicle that uses the Arabic language. Both in terms of the kind of language is learned, there are uncertainties whether classical Arabic, modern Arabic, or Arabic daily. Third in terms of method, there is uncertainty between maintaining the old method or using the new method.

Nevertheless, all four forms of learning Arabic has been widely used until now in a variety of formal educational institutions (madrasas and public schools) in Indonesia. This policy was taken because of this integration is seen as more aspirational century with the development of globalization, by continuing to seek various ways to correct the deficiencies contained therein. Similarly, the uncertainty that exists, at least it can spur the observer learning the Arabic language to present a positive bid for the development of Arabic language teaching methodology.

Finally, other forms of learning Arabic as described above still exist and are used to this, of course with modifications, innovations and developments respectively. If the first form of learning Arabic in the mosque and was formerly a mosque, now developed into TPQ / TPA (Garden Education Qur'an) that flourished not only in rural but also widespread in urban areas. Learning methods are used increasingly evolved into a more practical and varied, not just a method of spelling / alphabet, but also used the method iqra ', al-barqi, hattawiyah, al-Nur and the like. The development is in line with the increasing awareness of religious community and the need to instill kesdaran religious values ​​to children at an early age.

Meanwhile, a second form of learning Arabic is still maintained in salaf pesantren huts. While learning the Arabic language that emphasizes a third form of Arabic as a communication tool widely used in modern Islamic boarding schools, and various educational institutions of modern Islam. The fourth form of learning Arabic is also still used until now in lemabaga formal education (madrassas and public schools) and was encouraged perfected, both in terms of curriculum, learning orientation, the material being taught, learning methods and strategies, as well as the media used.

0 comment:

Post a Comment