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HISTORY OF CULTURECAVE PAINTINGS SOUTH SULAWESI | Cave painting in Indonesia known to develop during the hunting and gathering food advanced (Kosasih, 1983). According H.R. Van Hekeren (1972 in Permana, 2008) likely to cave in South Sulawesi's life lasted for thousands of years BC. Cave painting in Indonesia spread over the area of South Sulawesi, Maluku Islands, Papua, and Kalimantan.

The discovery of cave paintings in South Sulawesi for the first kalianya performed by CHM Heeren-Palm in 1950 at Leang Pattae. In this cave was found with a hand stamp, stamp a background of red paint. Perhaps these women merupakancap left hand. The labeling of this hand hand made by stretching your fingers on the cave wall and then sprinkled with red paint. Digua also found a painting of a pig who was jumping deer with an arrow in the heart. Perhaps the painting is intended as a kind of hope that they managed to hunt in the woods. Hog deer were depicted with horizontal stripes of red. (Marwati Djoened Poespoenegoro; 2008, 187)

Heekeren Research in Cave Birds find the hand labeling. This all was still coming from the left hand stamp. Another discovery made by C.J.H. Franssen find the hand stamp is also in a cave near Sarippa, which was then named the cave JariE. Based on these findings Franssen Heekeren conduct a joint investigation in the cave, so it found a total of 29 pieces hand stamp, which consists of four groups. The groups are:
  1. There are two pieces, each consisting of 7 and 5 pieces of hand stamped with a red background stamp.
  2. There are four hand stamp, which is one of them has 4 fingers, and the other has only three fingers.
  3. Each consisting of 4 and 5 pieces, of which there are not thousands of fingers, 4 pieces hand stamp

On the outside wall of the cave there is a painting of the forearm, but its shape is rather less clear. Other discoveries adalha Lambattorang cave, about Maros. On the other wall of the cave was discovered stamp-stamp the hands of as many as 40 units. About a site that, at Leang PattaE Kere, also found a picture hog deer distilir by hand labeling. Pig picture that is here one has a length of approximately 1 meter.
Based on geographic data and archaeological data, there are two areas in South Sulawesi who have painted caves of the district of Maros (Maros Complex) and the District Pangkajene (Complex Pangkajene). Complex Maros, an archaeological object that is often observed, even the most widely studied by domestic and foreign as well as the longest studied, ie since the Dutch era to the present.
Pangkajene complex, an area which has cave paintings are most numerous, among others, Garunggung, Lasitae, Feather Ballang, Lompoa, Kassi, Sapiria, Sakapao, Akarasaka, Sumpangbita, Bulusumi, Feather Sipong, Camingkana, Patenungan, Feather Ribba, Salluka, and squid Lantang.

These caves have paintings vary greatly, not only technique but also his portrayal prihal diversity pattern. Red as dominant color, there are several caves that show the human pattern with black, the cave Lompoa, Kassi, and Sapiria. The image pattern is among others a picture stamp feet, anoa, and the canoe is only found in Cave Sumpang Bita. Patterns of fish found in caves Lasitae, Feather Ballang, Akarassaka, Feather Sippong, and Feather Ribba. In the cave there is also the pattern of hairs Ballang turtles, while the cave Feather Ribba tertela just a fish species of dolphins. In general, these caves have a pattern stamp danbabi hand, while the boat is only found in the pattern of Feather Cave Sippong. The only POA pigs have a pattern of religious-magical, as evidenced by the existence of such tatu or scars on his back, found in caves Sakapao. (Marwati Djoened Poesponegoro; 2008, 198)

Cave Sakapao

In painting the walls red tertela pattern consisting of a hand stamp and pigs. For some stamp hand, there are only a hand drawn underneath. For image pattern terdpat pigs in this painting seems to have a uniqueness, namely the First shows a scratch pad that resembles a pig's body scars, possibly a result of the blows hit a sharp weapon or lance. From this painting there are many people who interpret or connect it with magical powers, such as the meaning of cave paintings found in Pattakere I.

In addition to meaningful magical images can also be interpreted as a symbol of the hunt, in which people at that time was already familiar with the hunting of swine, both for food and ceremonial keprluan. Second, displaying images that overlap pig, both menghadp to the right. If we look more observant appear that show pig pig androgynous image. This scene shows or tends to have a purpose connected with fertility problems.

Human object image

It seems that the human image of the object is rarely used in those days, although rarely seen pictures of human object, but that does not mean nothing. Figure berobjek humans are all around the island of Muna (South Sulawesi) and and Pangkajene (South Sulawesi) is in the cave Lompoa, Kassi and Sapiria. Lampoa Goa, besides having a pattern likisan humans also have other patterns such as, hand stamp, pigs, sun, fish, parahu, and geometric shapes, while the interesting part of the cave Kassi is a pattern axes, plows and snake eyes.

Based on the patterns terdpat in the above we can conclude that society at that time already menyadri a balance between physical nd spiritual needs. Both of these meanings seem to have a unified meaning between social-economic value, which is represented by a pattern of pigs, boats, axes, and plowshares, and religis-magical value represented by the pattern of hand painting and stamp of the sun. As for pictures of snakes that tertela in painting patterns, is only interpreted as a warning to men to be careful of because it was considered dangerous reptiles.

Cave Sumpang Bita (Pangkajene, South Sulawesi)

Is the only stamp of the foot paintings, paintings on cave walls tertela rear. Although it is not certain meaning contained within the walls of the cave paintings, by analogy can be associated with ceremonies that are associated with the event a baby is able to walk for the first time. Passage of the baby for the first time, is considered sacred in the eyes of society. To commemorate the event or events that are considered sacred, it is deemed necessary to make the sign of the evidence, namely in the form of footprints that are listed in the right hand wall of the cave where they live. The similarity between the pattern of the hand stamp with the stamp of the foot are equally drawn in the form of negative (negative footprint).

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