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Approach of Culture and Religion

HISTORY OF CULTUREApproach of Culture and Religion | Approach as a scientific concept is not synonymous with real-word approach commonly used by the public or layman. If the concept of the layman or the general word is defined as a state approaches or processes close to something, for in order to relate or to persuade it to do something desired by that approach, then the concept of scientific words mean the same approach with the methodology or methodological approach.

Sense approach as a methodology is the same as the way or point of view in seeing and treating considered or reviewed. So in this sense, the approach is not only defined as an angle or point of view but also a variety of methods covered in the angle and perspective. Thus the concept of culture can be defined as an approach or methodology point of view and way of using culture as the glasses. The problem then, is to define the concept of culture is used as a point or an outlook.

In Indonesia, among the scholars and social scientists, the concept of culture from Professor Koentjaraningrat very popular. In this concept of culture is defined as its form, which covers the whole of: (1) ideas, (2) conduct, and (3) the results of behavior. By using this definition then the person or researcher observers will notice that everything he had in mind, who performed and produced by human behavior is culture. Thus, the culture is the target of observation or research, and, instead of the approach or methodology for observation, research or study.

Since it is impossible to use the whole idea, behavior, and results of behavior, as a rounded and comprehensive system to be used as kecamata to assess the behavior or ideas or results of human behavior. Impossibility is due to: (1) idea as an idea or knowledge is not the same essence with the conduct and results of behavior. Knowledge can not be observed while the conduct or results of behavior can be observed and / or can be palpated. (2) conduct and results of behavior is the product or result of thinking that comes from human knowledge. So the relationship between ideas or knowledge to conduct and behavior is the result of a causal relationship, and therefore the idea or knowledge can not be classified as a class whose name is the same culture.

In my various writings, among others (1986), I have argued that culture is a guideline for the lives of people who believed the truth by the community. If culture is a guideline for the life of these cultures will have to be knowledge of the faith for people who have it. Thus, it is not covered in the definition of culture behavior and the results of behavior: for, conduct and results of behavior is a product of culture.

As a rule of life of a society, culture used by citizens to interpret and understand their environment and encourage and generate actions to utilize various resources that exist in the environment to meet the various needs of their lives. To be used as a reference for the interpretation and understanding, then the system contains culture-classification or categorization system that is used to make classification-classifying or sorting, selecting and combining options for particular interests. Thus every culture contains the concepts, theories, and methods for choosing, selecting options and outcomes mengabungkan those choices.

As a guideline to meet the needs of the life of the culture containing the concepts, recipes, and instructions to be used for the real world in order to live a biologist, to be able to develop a life together and for the survival of society, and moral guidelines , ethics, and aesthetics that are used as reference for their daily activities. Operationalization of culture as a guide to people's lives is through the various institutions that exist in that society. Moral guidelines, ethical, and aesthetic that exist in every culture is an essential core that exist in every culture. The guidelines are essential as is usually called cultural values. These cultural values ??of two categories, namely the fundamental and which are not influenced by the realities of daily life from the supporters of culture as a view called Life or World View; and the second, which affects and is affected by the activities coraknya the daily activities of the supporters of the so-called culture or ethos ethos.

Culture as a guide to people's lives, allows for citizens being able to communicate with each other without producing any misunderstandings. Because by using the same culture as the reference for each act then communicate these actors can predict what is desired by the perpetrator that it faces. So is the use of symbols and signs that together they can understand their meaning, they also will not misunderstand each other. At the individual level or the individual, culture of that society into cultural knowledge of the behavior. Individual or individuals possess the knowledge and culture by the perpetrators of these may vary or varied, depending on the experiences of each individual and on the ability of biological or nervous systems to absorb a variety of stimuli and input from the community or culture their environment.

Culture as the existing knowledge about the world around him and his experiences with the relatively easy to change and evolve in accordance with the changes that occur in the environment, particularly in relation to fulfilling the needs for the life of her resources in the environment . But as a faith, that is, cultural values, especially beliefs about the truth of his life guidelines, then the culture tend to not easily changed.

Approach of Culture and Religion

The concept of culture as I suggested above that which can be used as tools or eyeglasses to come and examine and understand the religion. When viewed with the use glasses religion religion, then religion is treated as a culture, ie: as a guideline for the lives of people who believed the truth by the residents of these communities. Religion viewed and treated as knowledge and beliefs held by a society, namely, knowledge and belief of the holy and sacred that can be distinguished from the knowledge and beliefs sacred and the profane that is characteristic of culture.

At the time we see and treat religion as a culture so that we see is religion as a living faith that exist in human society, and not religion that exist in the sacred text, which is in the Holy Koran and the Hadith of the Prophet. As a belief that life in society, religion becomes a local-style, ie, in accordance with the culture of the local community. Why is that? to become knowledge and belief of the people concerned, then religion must perform a variety of processes negate the struggle in cultural values that are contrary to the essential beliefs of the religion and to do that also must be mensesuaikan essential values with cultural values  and elements existing cultural elements, so that religion can become an integral part of various elements and cultural values  of that culture. Thus, the religion will be able to become the cultural values of that culture.

If religion has become part of the culture then religion is also part of the cultural values  of that culture. Thus, the various actions taken by the citizens to fulfill their life needs in day-to-day will also be based on the ethos of the religion which is believed. Thus, ethical values and moral religion will be absorbed and reflected in the various institutions that exist in the society. Conversely, if the heart and parcel of that culture are the values of other cultures, then the values of ethics and morality of the religion followed by the public will only be sweetening the mouth only, or only important for ceremonies only.

Is the point in using a cultural approach to religion. Which mainly is its usefulness as a methodological tool to understand the religious complexion held by a society and its citizens. Usefulness of the second, as a result continuation of the primary uses, is to be able to drive and increase the religious beliefs held by its citizens in accordance with the teachings of the true according to religion, without having to create conflict with the residents of these communities. The third, often something similar religious beliefs with the beliefs we have that may differ in various aspects of the local. However, by understanding the local conditions then we can become more tolerant of local aspects, since the understanding that if the local aspects of religious belief that society changed there will be changes in the various institutions that exist in society that finally will produce a change in culture that will only hurt the community because it is not in accordance with local conditions of the environment that society.

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