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The King Of Samu Samu

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The King Of Samu Samu | HISTORY OF CULTURE | In prehistoric times the island of Nusa Sea is the best producer of Cloves, Abubu Affairs is one of 7 country that is in the island of Nusa - Sea. Maluku - Indonesia. Ancestors of King is the King of State Abubu Silawane first, when the King died Ancestors Silawane forwarded by his brother, King City Ancestors. King Samu Samu has existed since the XVI Century - 1556 AD, initiated since the death of King City forwarded Ancestors biological child named Abigael Samu Samu King Ancestors. Ancestors of King Samu Samu Abigael who have great posture and height are the Warriors Ocean (tough sailors) and the highly regarded and respected throughout the State - State in the Moluccas; Kapata ancestors (ancestral history) King Samu Samu: King Samu Samu helped fight Islands waters Sultanate of Ternate Ternate help fight the forces Purtugis, still in Kapata ancestors (ancestral history) King Samu Samu: when there is another king of Fam want to go to the Land of Abubu - Nusa Sea, then by the power of prayer King Samu Samu make another King of Fam located in the middle of the ocean can not see Abubu Affairs and the island of Nusa Sea, and finally King of the other Fam go, that the incident was witnessed by King - King of the top island of Seram.

The Birth Story Of Gatot Kaca

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The Birth Story Of Gatot Kaca | HISTORY OF CULTUREAfter a long awaited finally Arimbi Goddess of the Milky bear children. All the people Pringgandani very glad, because this child will become the next generation as King Arimbi Pringgandani when Dewi was gone. It was all the son of the Pandavas accompanied Batara Sri Krishna did not miss the whole clown-servant Semar, Astrajingga, Dawal and Gareng Pringgandani gathered at the Palace, they see themselves being gathered awaiting the birth of the son of Bima. Not long ago a baby's cry sounded jarring rattle around Pringgandani, all of which are on the ward took a deep breath. A moment later there nursemaid who deliver to the news that the crown prince had been born male in good health as well as the condition of the mother.


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JAGARAGA WAR IN BALI | HISTORY OF CULTUREJagaraga war lasted for two days, namely on 15 and 16 april1849, but the war can reveal the historic event back in Bali. The historic event was later called jagaraga war, namely the People of Bali in the history of heroism expel the Dutch occupiers. Jagaraga is the name of a village in the kingdom of Buleleng, north Bali, then became famous after use as the central defense in the face of Bali's troops attack the Dutch soldiers. Actually the war was a continuation of the war jagaraga Buleleng that occurred in 1846. 're At war from 1848 and 1849 is commonly called the war jagaraga. On war and war Buleleng jagaraga Buleleng king accused the Dutch did not keep the agreement that she had made in 1841 and 1843, because it was reasonable to attacked the kingdom it. In this war I Gusti Ktut jagaraga Jlantik jagaraga vigorously defend the fort. Gusti Jlantik consequence of wisdom in dealing with strangers is that Buleleng kingdom and its people must have the courage to face the Dutch attack. On the war in 1848 jagaraga a dutch expelled from jagaraga.

In the mid-19th century in Bali there are 9 pieces kingdom: Klungkung, Karangasem, Mengwi, naughty, bangle, tabanan, Buleleng, and Jembrana. Founder jerajaan Buleleng are I Gusti Ngurah Bannerman Way. His offspring continue the reign of Buleleng, even though their government is not always covered by dsn serene tranquil atmosphere. At the end of the 17th century I Gusti Ngurah Sakti Bannerman died, then succeeded by two sons, who together rule and dwell together in the puri Sukasada. The eldest named I Gusti Ngurah Gede Bannerman, and the government was represented by his brother I Gusti Ngurah Made. In 1804 the war between the I Gusti Ngurah Bannerman with I Gusti Ngurah Jlantik. I Gusti Ngurah Jlantik received help from the king of Karangasem I Gusti Karangasem. In that war the king Sukasada lose. Not long after I Gusti Ngurah Jlantik died. Buleleng Kingdom government is held by I Gusti Gede Karangasem. In 1816, I Gusti Ngurah Agung replace the I Gusti Gede Karangasem. This king ruled not long because people do not like government. Then in 1829 was replaced by I Gusti Agung Pahang

In mid-1596 de Houtman at Bantam layover, then proceed east pelayarannyake and in early 1597 to the coast of Bali. Netherlands can force the kings of Bali for the agreement to approach in 1841 and 1843. Netherlands succeeded because his efforts are sneaky and dishonest. The provisions contained in the agreement that the Dutch intended to divide the power of the kings of Bali. This then becomes an obstacle to the kings of Bali for a new agreement with the government to approach the Indian-Dutch. In 1839 Dutch commercial airline NHM managed to open trade office in Kuta, naughty. Between the years 1839-1843 Huskus HJ Koopman commissioners appointed by the Dutch government to make treaties with the kings of Bali. His efforts have failed first.

For the second time trying to make perjanjiandengan Koopman great god, Klungkung and King of Badung. The contents of covenant is that the kings are:
  • State land is owned by the Dutch East Indies government
  • It will not give up his country to the other European nations and make a covenant with them,
  • and Allow tricolor flag-raising in the region.
At the end of the 1841 agreement ditandatanganioleh King Buleleng and Karangasem. Both kingdoms were willing to approach the agreement because at the time of Mataram in Lombok king refused to recognize the power of the king of Karangasem. In an effort menfembalikan this power Koopman will provide assistance to face Mataram.

Although the kings of Bali, Buleleng and Karangasem try to defend the right of journalists reef, Dutch diplomacy in the end managed to thrust a treaty to remove it. Thus the king Karangasem believes will restore his control over Mataram, Lombok which at that time did not subject him. This is a diplomatic victory obtained by the kings of Bali in the face of the Netherlands. Buleleng keep running the captive corals against ships stranded on the beach. In 1844 there athun seizure of the ships damaged or wrecked on the coast and beaches Sangsit Jambrana prancah in the region. This event is a series of causes of war and war Buleleng Jagaraga ie as evidence of the courage of the people of Bali to maintain customary law still run captive reef. According to the reporter right now all cargo ships belonging to the king and the coastal population, while the passengers bought sold, enslaved and sometimes killed. To avoid severe consequences because the executable seize the rock in its original form, then later the kings of Bali make the rules together. Cargo and passenger ships are stranded will be submitted to the king's ship and the place of origin within 25 days there is a chance to redeem cargo and passenger ships. Tawan reefs as indigenous legal institutions must be maintained not only in Bali, but also found in Tanimbar islands and southeastern Borneo.

In 1844 came two seizure of two ships stranded on beaches in the region Sangsit Buleleng and Jembrana Prancah region. Assistant Resident Banyuwangi Ravia de lignij dating to Buleleng with the intention that the stranded vessel and the cargo delivered immediately. In May 1845 Resident Maijor dating Basuki itself to Bali for the elimination of prisoner treaty meratifisir reefs. Maijor the king's request ditolakoleh Buleleng. The Maijor task is to deliver provisions to the king as he investigates the power of the kingdom of Buleleng Buleleng.

King Buleleng and patihnya know that Holland will attack. Protection holes are made, reinforced fortresses in central defense in Buleleng and Singaraja. In this war soldier Bali using a light gun called lilac. Force comprised of Dutch war army and navy. Command troops landing infranteri held by Lieutenant Colonel G. Bakker. Dutch forces landed shore Buleleng on 27 June 1846. Maijor sent an ultimatum to the king Buleleng. If the member does not answer the next morning the attack can not be deferred again. E.B. Van den Boschdan eskader assistance in Sangsit and tabunkus. Prajuri Bali trying to maintain places of landing. But they were driven out by shots from the Dutch ship. Buleleng king and his family fled to the village Jagaraga, Gusti Jlantik while still leading the battle with a Brahmin Ida Bagus Guests. Because of pressures Dutch finally Gusti Jlantik mundursampai Jagaraga village. In this place was built with defense places the villagers to construct the power back.

King Buleleng and Karangasem signed an agreement in 1846 which is binding. According to the agreement that the two kingdoms were placed under the Dutch East Indies government. Thus the two kingdoms were reduced its sovereignty. In 1847 and Badung kusumba beach stranded vessels that are not clear kebangsaanya. Passenger and cargo subject to prisoner reefs. This incident is used by the Dutch reason to carry out the war a second time, in addition to other reasons because of Buleleng and Karangasem did not keep the agreement ever made. War is called war years 1848ini Jagaraga I. In the war of 1848 Jagaraga a Balinese warrior can expel the Dutch. The number of soldiers Buleleng, Karangasem and Klungkung about 7 to 8,000. This amount far greater than expected Netherlands. On 20juni 1848 Dutch troops to leave Bali. This defeat led to the Dutch Government sent a third expedition in 1849, which was then called Jagaraga War II

In the war of 1848 dutch Jagaraga I was expelled from Jagaraga. This is a proof that the soldier is quite able to deal with attacks launched by the Dutch. Balinese kings began to get ready to face the Dutch. Defense centers repaired and strengthened. At that time soldiers under the command of Gusti Jlantik Baliu've been dealing with Dutch troops. Two opposite forces that no one opened fire first, although they are waiting for the signal to attack. Meanwhile, both sides retreated while waiting for negotiations to be held. In the attacks on 15 April that the Dutch army in the third column. Column 1 is the car as a troop carrier forces. Column 2 is much smaller force. Column 3 as the troops remain in sengsit assistance. In that battle casualties 33orang Dutch soldiers were killed and 148 wounded; of the Bali's troops had killed 6000 people. Those days are days of mourning. Jagaraga occupied by Dutch troops. Bali soldiers and their leaders will hold a resistance elsewhere.


The kings of Bali along with his people against the Dutch with gigihwalaupun weapons and the equipment they are less than perfect. In war there Jagaraga II triumph on the part of the Netherlands. Thus the Dutch military expedition which ended third. The agreement signed by the kings of Bali was by the Dutch intended to break belahkekuatan the kings of England, so there is not one of the great strengths of the several kingdoms that will be against the Dutch. In 1858 I Nyoman Gempol, a java Banjar perbekel up arms against the Dutch. Perbekel gather people to fight the king of Buleleng and the Netherlands. But the effort failed because the plan has been known by the Dutch.

In 1868 occurred the resistance Ida Made Rai, a retainer of Western Buleleng diangakt by the Dutch to "regent". To confront this resistance Ida Made Rai. Dutch East Indies government has sent another expedition. Heroic resistance that was to be discontinued due to Ida Made Rai was caught and thrown into Java. It is obvious that the fire of the spirit of resistance soldiers in pernag Jagaraga Bali to expel the Dutch occupiers remained diwarisa soldier Bali. Senagat ardent opposition was not only inherited by the soldiers of Bali alone, but also Indonesian soldiers generally, especially in fostering a spirit of national struggle.

History of the Pajang Kingdom

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History of the Pajang Kingdom HISTORY OF CULTURE | In the history of the Display is the holder of the reins of power after demak royal Javanese Islam. There are historians who say that the actual shelf-shaped empire and not yet the king did not hold a sultan. Shelf, said historians are still a duchy. However, for the sake of simplicity, we use the first opinion by calling the shelf as a sultanate. Sultanate located in the area Kartasura shelf (near surakarta or solo), Central Java. The Sultanate is the first Islamic kingdom located in the hinterland. Previously, the kingdom of Islam has always been in the coastal areas, since Islam came via traders from western Asia are anchored on the coast. The first Sultan kerebet shelf is mas. It stems from pangging, villages in the southeast slopes of Mount Merapi. Mas is the son of the ruler Pengging kerebet last, handayaningrat, who was sentenced to death by the emperor of the Holy. The death penalty was given because Handayaningrat follow the teachings of Sheikh Siti Jenar deemed heretical. Mas karebet has another name, namely Jaka Tingkir. Tingkir Kerebet mas is the name of the place grew.

Syahdan, a raging bull in demak. A contest was held in Demak. Sultanate demak states that anyone who can conquer the bull, will be appointed as a retainer of the empire. Jaka tingkir these contests, and he succeeded in paralyzing the bull. Therefore, Jake received Tingkir serve, even then the son of Sultan Trenggana and given an area called the shelf, with Jake Tikir as adipatinya. After the sultan Trenggana died in 1546, his son is named Sunan Prawoto appointed as his successor. However, he later died were killed in the seizure of power by his own nephew, the Arya Panangsang.

Furthermore, Arya demak Penangsang became ruler. But because the duchy shelf has also been growing strongly and has a vast territory there was disagreement between the bachelor and arya Penangsang tingkir. With the help of other duchy duchy, which also did not like arya Penangsang, bachelor tingkir finally managed to kill Arya Penangsang. The story of the conquest of arya Penangsang recorded in the Chronicle story, of course with seasonings bumbus myth. Narrated in the Babad Tanah Jawi, Jake Tingkir received help from three people yaknik Ki Ageng Pemanahan, Penjawi Ki, Ki Mertani Savior. Arya Penangsang famous magic, because it is a major disciple of the Holy Sunan, senapati war demak kingdom. To deal with supernatural powers Penangsang, the three were making strategies. Run tactics, beginning with the capture and injured ear Arya Penangsang favorite horse, Crow Rimang. The horse was then returned to his cage. Knowing this, Arya Penangsang very angry, and immediately seek deemed responsible.

Seen, people who handle Rimang melekuia run to the edge of the Solo River, So arya Penangsang after him. There ki troops archery, Penjawi Ki, and Ki Martani Savior is waiting. At that time the child Ki Gede danang Sutawijaya Mataram, was waiting behind a bush across the river gerumul. When Arya Penangsang arrived on the shores of river, opposite released a mare. Thus, direct rimang crow chasing a mare is out of control, and cross the river solo. Across the river, Danang Sutawijaya ready, wielding tombank Kyai Plered. Position so close, Arya Penangsang was stabbed with a spear in hand Sutawijaya. He fell, his intestines spilled. However, arya Penangsang rose again, and wrapping his intestines on the keris, Kyai Satan Kober. Then he lunged Sutawijaya, while wielding keris. But he forgot, the pain dagger entwined his own intestines, to even scratch the intestines it. arya Penangsang killed instantly.

As the king shelf, holds a bachelor tingkir Hadiwijaya Sultan (1568-1582). The title was passed by the Sunan Giri, and soon gained recognition from the Grand Duke menjawa central and eastern Java. As a first step affirmation of power, Hadiwijaya ordered that all heirlooms demak moved to Pajang. After that, he became one of the most influential king menjawa. Sultan Hadiwijaya expand his power in Javanese countryside to the east until the madison, the flow of the largest child Solo river. Year 1554, Blora, near Jipang, occupied as well. Ditundukannya Kediri in 1577. year 1581, after the age of the sultan Hadiwijaya beyond middle age, he managed to gain recognition as sultanislam of the most important kings in eastern Java. Although the sultan Hadiwijaya very influential and powerful, but the display is not able to expand his territory into the ocean. Madura was not even included in a display territory. Perhaps, this is one result of shelf positions are entered into pedalamanjawa too. Although expansion of the region can not run optimally, during the reign Hadiwijaya, the field of literature and art that have been advanced in Demak and Jepara slow sea known in pedalamanjawa. Kaut Islamic influence in the coastal areas also spread and spread to the interior.

Hadiwijaya died in 1587. his body was buried in Need, an area west of the palace garden shelf. He was succeeded by son, Arya Pangiri, Sunan Prawoto child. Prior to his appointment to the throne shelf, Arya Pangiri is demak ruler. Meanwhile, the child Hadiwijaya sultan, prince Benawa, removed by Arya Pangiri, and made Duke Jipang. Prince Benawa then ask for help danang Sutawijaya Mataram ruler, to overthrow the Aryan Pangiri. They succeeded and rose to the throne Prince Benawa shelf. However, benawa end its rule by resigning from the throne, and then choose the service life untukagama. Furthermore, the empire overshadowed a display of the power of Mataram. In lieu of pengeran benawa, king of Mataram Crow lifted clear. However, his position is just as dukes Pajang. Unfortunately, age is not long. He died in 1591. finally, the king of Mataram raised as a duke's son prince benawa shelf. Bearkhi shelf in royal history in 1618.

History of Interest Tidung Tribe

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History of Interest Tidung Tribe | HISTORY OF CULTURETidung a tribe whose land was originally located in the northern part of East Kalimantan. This tribe is also a country boy in Sabah, so there are tribes in Indonesia and Malaysia (Sabah state). Tidung originally have Tidung kingdom called the Kingdom. But eventually become extinct because of politics would provoke, by the Dutch. Tarakan Tidung language dialect is the language of the mid Tidung as understood by all citizens Tidung. Some words Tidung language still has in common with other Borneo languages. Possible Tidung Dayak tribes still allied with clumps Murut (Dayak tribes in Sabah). Because Tidung Muslim and developing the Islamic empire that is not considered a Dayak tribe, but a cultured tribe categorized Melayu (Malay customary law) such as interest Banjar, Kutai tribes, and tribal Sand.

Tidung people have no tradition of writing itself. For the purposes of their writing using the Arabic alphabet malay before knowing Latin letters as it is now. Tidung community embraced Islam around the 18th century. Along with the introduction of Islam, were also entered the Malay Arabic writing tradition.

It is said the Sultan of Sulu-named Sultan Salahuddin Karamat or Pangiran Bakhtiar has married with a Chinese girl who came from the area Tirun (Tidung). And also because I wanted to secure the North-Borneo (now Sabah) after the region received from the Sultan of Brunei, a son of Sultan Salahuddin, namely Sultan Karamat Badaruddin-I also have a daughter memperisterikan Tirun or Tidung (second wife) who is the son to the government early Tidung region. (The first wife of Sultan Badaruddin-I, said the girl from Soppeng, South Sulawesi. Thus was born the kemudianya Lagasan Datu into the title of Sultan of Sulu, Sultan Alimuddin ibni Sultan Badaruddin-I-I). From zuriat Sultan Alimuddin-I is said to be coming Kiram Family and Shakiraullah in Sulu.

Then the blood of the descendants of Princess Tidung this was a son named Datu Bantilan and a princess named Dayang Meria. Datu Bantilan later ascend the throne of the Sultanate of Sulu (replacing his brother Sultan Alimuddin-I) on the years around 1748, the title of Sultan Bantilan Muizzuddin. Dayang said Meria Adindanya berkahwin with a Chinese merchant, and later gave birth Teteng or Datu Datu Tating. And from this Muizzuddin Bantilan zuriat Sultan Maharajah Family coming Adina, who is now an "Heir Actually" to follow the Sultanate of Sulu Sultanate Protocol System called "tartib Sulu".

It also said that the true heir to the title, caring of the Most Noble (DYMM) Sultan Aliuddin Haddis Pabila (Deceased on 06/30/2007 at Kudat, Sabah). And also expressed bahawa 'Crown Prince' now Sulu sultanate was the son of Sultan Aliuddin bongsu to DYMM a supremely caring named Honor (DYTM) Datu Ali Aman or held as well as the "King Bongsu-II" (* The event may take the blessing of their fathers name named King Bongsu or Pengiran Shahbandar Maharajalela, which is the son-bongsu to Sultan Muhammad Hassan of Brunei. Bongsu King said it was piping to become the Sultan of Sulu Sulu Sultan succeeded his uncle Middle Batarasah ibn Sultan-ul-Halim Buddiman that no son. Mrs. King Bongsu This is the daughter of the Sultan-ul-Halim Pangiran Buddiman that berkahwin with Sultan Muhammad Hassan).

Dialectical variations

Tidung language has several dialects and even have subdialek. So far there has been some opinion about the amount of this Tidung dialect, such as opinion Stort, Beech, and Prentice. Stort (1958) mentions that there are five dialects dialect Tidung Tarakan, Sembakung, Penchangan, sedalir, and Tidung Sembakung river. Beech (1908) identified four dialects, namely Tidung Tarakan, Bulungan, Nunukan and Sembakung. whereas Prentice (1970) mentions three language groups Tidung, namely Tarakan, the remains (Sembakung), and Tanggara.

As far as the eye and observation seems Language Tidung it can be divided into two major dialects, ie dialects and dialect Tidung Sesayap Sembakung. Dialect Tidung Sesayap Sesayap along the river there and the islands of the estuary such as the island of Tarakan, Bunyu Island and islands in Nunukan. Sembakung dialects found in the river north of the river Sesayap Sembakung. Sesayap dialects include Subdialek Sesayap, Malinaw and Tarakan. Subdialek Malinaw commonly found in the area which includes the headwaters Sesayap Malinau and Tideng Pale (the Capital District. Tana Tidung). Subdialek Tarakan include many residential locations including the island of Tarakan, Salimbatu, rocks, Nunukan and Bunyu Island. Sembakung dialects there are in Sembakung, Lumbis, Sebuku and Tana Lia.

Ponan custom that still exists in Sumbawa

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Ponan custom that still exists in Sumbawa | HISTORY OF CULTUREIndigenous PONAN is one tradition or custom that is done as a form of indigenous expressions of gratitude to Allah SWT ponan for having finished the Rice Plant. Ponan is a thanksgiving to the creator is also one moment to unite and strengthen kinship. On a small hill which is right in the heart of Orong Rea (rice field name in the indigenous residents have ponan) The third meeting ponan indigenous residents and relatives from outside the traditional family even to the outer regions. During the meeting three residents ponan customary to thank one another for mutual support and cooperation which made starting from the plow to finish planting rice in paddies. With a prayer to the Creator, ponan indigenous residents hope that the new rice crop grown saj given fertility and kept away from all kinds of pests and diseases.

The value contained in a custom implementation ponan is an expression of feeling full of joy. This joy is expressed by reciting poems Ratib containing praises to Allah SWT and Prophet Muhammad. Ponan custom implementation has been going on for centuries on the ground PAROSO (Moyo District Downstream). Indigenous ponan is done at the time of rice began to enter the period of conception. With customary ponan expected agricultural output will increase, and any pest or disease away from the rice plant. Ponan custom implementation is followed by Poto Village, Hamlet and Hamlet Malili Bekat Downstream Moyo District. Formerly these three villages located in a rural area called Bekat Loka. Because of the floods, villagers are also looking for a high place so the split and form their respective villages.

Ponan customary hereditary remain to be implemented, because it is a testament of our ancestors know paroso (Moyo people downstream) specifically applies to the three village residents ponan customary. The contents of the will stated that the customary activities conducted ponan will bring good crops. And conversely, if not implemented will give bad consequences for agriculture. Indigenous ponan've not done deliberately, to prove the truth of the will and proved it when agricultural output at that time was not very good and farmers suffer from hunger because of poor agricultural output.

Ponan string of ritual process starts from the preparation of the community to confront ponan celebration. This event consists of a welcoming and implementation ponan own custom event. In welcoming the event with the event ponan disemarakkan cultural attractions are presented which have been entertaining the local community. On the eve of welcoming ponan is showcased several local dances, folk songs, and games tana Samawa should remain preserved.

These people become healers entertainment tiredness and fatigue for the citizens of indigenous ponan after three days earlier to prepare ponan event. This celebration is usually held at night and next day continued with the implementation of the ritual ponan. The next preparation is to prepare a dish or food become customary celebration ponan elements that must exist. petikal, domestic poultry, onde paralyzed and the other is a type of food that must exist in ponan celebration. What is interesting is the type of food served should be made from raw rice.

Uniquely, all the cakes are presented should not be fried or cooked with oil. Cooked must use fuel from wood. If the use of fuel oil, the taste of the less savory dishes. It is intended as a form of gratitude and local wisdom in preserving the culture for retaining the ordinance as did their ancestors. In addition, smoke from wood stoves and steam cooking of rice that must be made before, is a form of prayer offered up to heaven and is expected to last vaporized into a cloud that will bring rain so the rice will not be short of water because the rain is always down.

Implementation of the traditional rituals of gathering community ponan starts at the door of the village before heading to the hills ponan. After the whole community gathered together the whole community go hand in hand with bringing food and drinks to be presented to all the people who follow the customs ponan. After arriving at the hill ponan community, then the next event is to pray together, led by tetuah custom. This prayer of hope that the results of the agricultural community in the three villages have an abundance of agricultural products. In addition, on occasion it is also customary ponan people forgive each other, if during the processing field distribution of irrigation water for errors or any other thing that offends neighboring fields, so there is no grudge and the load on the heart that would damage the unity and brotherhood that will be also resulted in agricultural output. Because they are very closely related to the agricultural output by silaturrahmi ponan customary among fellow citizens. If fellow citizens ponan custom continued to get, then the crops will be good and vice versa. because God will give rizki sesungguhnnya the unexpected to his servant, who always keep the DI.

What is interesting also from indigenous ponan this is the package of cookies or foods made from banana leaves or coconut leaves and leaf bambo, should not be carelessly thrown away after being eaten. For the citizens of indigenous ponan, the leaves have been discarded in fields or around the rice field, being able to keep pests and diseases. It is believed also that this kind of thing as a balance between keeping your home clean and natural with rice plants.

Kingdom of Gapi / Sultanate of Ternate

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Kingdom of Gapi / Sultanate of Ternate | HISTORY OF CULTUREGapi kingdom or a later better known as the Sultanate of Ternate (after the name of its capital) is one of the four kingdoms of Islam in the Moluccas and is one of the oldest Muslim kingdoms in the archipelago. Founded by Ba'ab Mashur Malamo in 1257. Sultanate of Ternate has an important role in the eastern archipelago between the 13th century until the 17th century. Enjoy the glories of the Sultanate of Ternate in the last half century, thanks to -16 spice trade and military power. In the heyday of its power stretches covers an area of Maluku, Sulawesi, north, east and central, southern part of the Philippine archipelago as far as the Marshall Islands in the Pacific.

Origin of the Island Gapi
Gapi Island (now Ternate) began bustling in the early 13th century, the population is Ternate early exodus of residents from Halmahera. Initially there are four villages in Ternate that each - each headed by a momole (clan heads), they were the first - first make contact with the traders who came from all directions looking for spices - spices. Increasingly heterogeneous population of Ternate with bermukimnya Arab traders, Javanese, Malay and Chinese. Because of the increasingly busy trading activities plus the threat often comes from the pirates then on the initiative momole Tobona leaders held meetings In order to form a stronger organization and to appoint a single leader as king.

Year 1257 momole Ciko Sampalu elected and appointed leaders as Kolano (king) first with a degree Baab Mashur Malamo (1257-1272). Gapi kingdom centered in the village of Ternate, which in the subsequent development of increasingly large and crowded, so the population is also known as "Gam Lamo," or large village (later called Gam Lamo people with Gamalama). The larger and the popularity of Ternate, so then people would prefer to say the kingdom of Ternate than Gapi kingdom. Under the leadership of several generations later rulers, Ternate evolved from a kingdom that only berwilayahkan a small island became an influential and largest kingdom in the eastern part of Indonesia, especially the Moluccas.

Organization of the Kingdom
In the old days - early days of the tribe led by the momole Ternate. After forming the kingdom of leadership positions held by a king called Kolano. Starting in the mid-15th century, Islam was adopted in total by the royal and the application of Islamic law enforced. Sultan Zainal Abidin Kolano leave the title and replace it with the title of Sultan. The scholars became an important figure in the kingdom.

After the Sultan as the supreme leader, no office Jogugu (prime minister) and the Fala Raha as advisers. Fala Raha or Four Houses are the four noble clans who became the backbone of the empire as a representation of the momole in the past, respectively - each headed by a Kimalaha. They are; Marasaoli, Tomagola Tomaito and Tamadi. Officials - officials are generally derived from the imperial clan - the clan. When an emperor had no heirs then his successor is selected from one of the clan. Furthermore, there are positions - another position Bobato Nyagimoi Tufkange se (Council 18), Sabua Raha, Capita Lau, Salahakan, etc. Sangaji. For more details see the organizational structure of the sultanate of Ternate. Here is a list of the Sultan of Ternate:
  1. Kaicil Mashur Malamo or Kaicili Tsyuka (1257-1277)
  2. Kaicil Jamin or Kadarat Chile (1277-1284)
  3. Kaicil Kamalu or Abu Sahid (1284-1298)
  4. Kaicil Bakuku (1298-1304)
  5. Kaicil Nagarah Malamo (1304-1317)
  6. Kaicil Patsarangah Malamo (1317-1322)
  7. Arif Malamo Kaicil Session (1322-1331)
  8. Kaicil Paji Malamo (1331-1332)
  9. Kaicil Sah Alam (1332-1343)
  10. Tulu Kaicil Malamo (1343-1347)
  11. Kie Kaicil Mabiji (1347-1350)
  12. Kaicil Ngolo Macayah (1350-1357)
  13. Kaicil Mamole (1357-1359)
  14. Kaicil Gapi Malamo (1359-1372)
  15. Kaicil Gapi Baguna or Gapi Baguna I (1372-1377)
  16. Kaicil Kamalu (1377-1432)
  17. Kaicil Sia or Gapi Baguna II (1432-1465)
  18. Kaicil Gapi Baguna or Marhum (1465-1486)
Moloku Kie Raha
In addition to Ternate, Maluku is also contained at least 5 other kingdoms that have an influence. Tidore, Jailolo, Bacan, Obi and Loloda. Kingdom - the kingdom is fighting hegemony rival of Ternate in the Moluccas. Thanks to the spice trade in Ternate enjoyed impressive economic growth, and to strengthen its hegemony in the Moluccas, Ternate began to expand. This has led to resentment and jealousy enlarge another kingdom in Maluku, Ternate they view as a common enemy to trigger a war. In order to stop a protracted conflict - soluble, king of Ternate to-7 Kolano Chile Aiya also called Arif Malamo Kolano Sida (1322-1331) invited the king - king of the Moluccas another reason to make peace and form an alliance. The Guild was later known as Moti or Motir Persekutan Verbond. Important points of this meeting is in addition to establishment of uniform shape institutional fellowship kingdom in the Moluccas. Therefore this meeting was attended by four of the strongest king Moluccas it is also known as communion Moloku Kie Raha (Four Mountain Moluccas).

Arrival of Islam
There was no obvious source for when the early arrival of Islam, especially Ternate in the Moluccas. But is expected since the beginning of the kingdom of Ternate Ternate society has come to know Islam considering the number of Arab traders who had settled in Ternate at the time. Some of the early kings of Ternate is already using the name of Islam but the certainty of their nuances and the royal family embraced Islam is still debated. Can only be sure that the royal family embraced Islam the official Ternate mid-15th century.

Kolano Marhum (1465-1486), ruler of Ternate to-18 is the first known king embraced Islam with all the relatives and courtiers. Substitute Kolano Marhum is his son, Zainal Abidin (1486-1500). Some of the steps taken by Sultan Zainal Abidin is leaving the title Kolano and replace it with the Sultan, Islam is recognized as the official religion of the kingdom, imposed Islamic law, form the royal institution in accordance with Islamic law involving the clergy. The steps are then followed by another empire in the Moluccas in total, almost without change. He also founded the first madrasah in Ternate. Sultan Zainal Abidin ever deepening sit under the teachings of Islam by Giri on the island of Java, where he was known as the "Sultan Bualawa" (Sultan Cloves).

The arrival of Portugal and civil war
In the reign of Sultan Bayanullah (1500-1521), Ternate growing, people are required to dress Islamically, boat building techniques and weapons obtained from the Arabs and Turks used to strengthen the forces of Ternate. In this period also the first Europeans arrived in the Moluccas, Loedwijk de Bartomo (Ludovico Varthema) in 1506. Portugal in 1512 for the first time set foot in Ternate under the leadership of Francisco Serrao, with the approval of the Sultan, Portugal allowed to set up a trading post at Ternate. 

Portugal came not alone - eye to trade but to control the spice trade - spices nutmeg and cloves in the Moluccas. For that first they must conquer Ternate. Bayanullah Sultan died leaving heirs - heirs are still very young. Widow of the sultan, and the Prince Consort Nukila Taruwese, sister of the late sultan acted as a guardian. Empress Nukila the origin of Tidore Ternate and Tidore intended to bring together under one crown which is one of his sons, princes Hidayat (later Sultan Dayalu) and the prince Abu Hayat (later Sultan Abu Hayat II). While the prince Tarruwese wants the throne for himself.

Portugal took advantage of this and pitting them until civil war broke out. Kubu Nukila supported empress prince of Tidore while Taruwese supported Portugal. After a victorious prince was betrayed and murdered precisely Taruwese Portugal. Portugal acts as an advisor to the Governor of the kingdom and the influence that the kingdom was able to persuade the council to lift Tabariji as a sovereign prince. But when the Sultan Tabariji began to show hostility, he was vilified and banished to Goa - India. There he was forced Portugal to sign an agreement making the Christian kingdom of Ternate as vassal kingdoms and Portugal, but the treaty was rejected Sultan Khairun (1534-1570).

Expulsion of Portugal
Treatment of Portugal against brother - his brother the Sultan Khairun furious and determined to expel the Portuguese from the Moluccas. Follow-up - horns on this one western nations also infuriated the people who ultimately stand behind the sultan Khairun. Since the sultan Bayanullah, Ternate has become one of the three most powerful empire and a major Islamic center in the archipelago of the 16th century in addition to Aceh and Demak after the fall of the Malacca Sultanate in 1511. The three formed the Alliance Three to stem the lunge Portugal in the archipelago.

Do not want to be the second of Malacca, Sultan Khairun waged war expulsion of Portugal. Portugal's position was very strong at that time, besides having the power of the fort and pockets throughout the Moluccas they also have allies - allies of indigenous tribes that could be deployed to head off Ternate. With the Aceh and Demak that continue to threaten the position of the Portuguese in Malacca, the Portuguese in the Moluccas difficulty getting reinforcements up to the Sultan was forced to beg peace Khairun. In Portuguese crafty governor, Lopez de Mesquita Sultan Khairun invited to the negotiating table and end up with the cruel killing of Sultan who come without bodyguards.

The murder of Sultan Ternate Khairun increasingly encourage people to get rid of Portugal, even the whole Maluku now supports the leadership and the struggle Baabullah Sultan (1570-1583), Portuguese outposts throughout the Moluccas and pounded eastern Indonesia, after fighting for 5 years, finally left the Moluccas Portugal for good in 1575. Ternate people's victory is a victory first sons of the strength of the western archipelago. Under the leadership of Sultan Baabullah, reaching Ternate's heyday, the area stretching from North and Central Sulawesi in the west to the Marshall Islands to the east, from Filipinos (South) in the north to the islands of Nusa Tenggara in the south. Sultan Baabullah dubbed "the ruler of 72 islands" which are all uninhabited (Dutch historian, Valentijn tells in detail the names of all 72 islands) to make the sultanate of Ternate as the greatest Islamic kingdom in eastern Indonesia, as well as Aceh and Demak that controls the western and central archipelago at that time. Period of three golden empire during the 14th and 15th centuries whether intentionally or not excluded in this nation's history when they were first pillar is to stem the western colonialism.

The arrival of the Dutch
After the death of the Sultan of Ternate Baabullah began to weaken, which has united Spain with Portugal in 1580 trying to regain control by attacking Ternate Moluccas. With the new force Spain to strengthen its position in the Philippines, Ternate was an alliance with Spain Mindanao but failed to dispel even the Sultan Said Barakati Spain successfully captured and exiled to Manila. Defeat after defeat suffered by the force of Ternate asked help of the Netherlands in 1603. Ternate eventually succeed in return for holding Spanish but very expensive. The Netherlands finally slowly mastering Ternate, dated June 26, 1607 the Sultan of Ternate signed a VOC monopoly in the Moluccas in return for aid against the Spanish Netherlands. In the year 1607 also the Dutch built fort Oranje on Ternate, which is their first fort in the archipelago.

Since the beginning of a relationship that is unhealthy and unbalanced between the Dutch and Ternate lead to dissatisfaction of the rulers and nobles of Ternate. Among them is a prince Hidayat (15?? - 1624), the young King of Ambon is also a former trustee of this king of Ternate, who led the opposition against the position of the sultan and the Netherlands. He ignored the agreement the Dutch trade monopoly by selling spices - spice merchant to Java and Makassar.

People's resistance and the fall of Ternate, Moluccas

The longer grip and the Dutch influence on the sultan - the stronger the sultan of Ternate, Dutch freely that hurts the regulations issued by the sovereign command, the brash attitude of the Dutch and the Sultan attitude that tends to lead to disappointment all the obedient. Throughout the 17th century, at least there are 4 insurrection fought by nobles and people of Ternate, Moluccas.

In 1635, for ease of supervision and spice prices slumped mengatrol Dutch decided to do logging large - scale clove and nutmeg trees throughout the Moluccas, or better known as Hongi Tochten, consequently the people fomenting resistance. 1641, led by the young king Salahakan Luhu Ambon, Ternate tens of thousands of joint forces - Hitu - Makassar demolish various Dutch position in the Central Moluccas. Salahakan Luhu later arrested and executed along with his entire family on June 16, 1643. The struggle then was continued by brother-Luhu, Hitu Kakiali and Tolukabessi capita until 1646.

Year 1650, the nobles fomenting resistance in Ternate Ternate and Ambon, the revolt was triggered Sultan Mandarsyah attitude (1648-1650,1655-1675), which are too familiar and considered likely to placate the Netherlands. The nobles conspired to lower Mandarsyah. Three of the main rebel prince trio Saidi, Majira and Kalumata. Prince Capita Saidi is a Marine or army supreme commander of Ternate, the young prince is king Majira Ambon while the prince sultan Mandarsyah Kalumata is the younger brother.

Saidi and Majira led the rebellion in the Moluccas center while the prince joined the king of Gowa Kalumata Sultan Hasanuddin in Makassar. They even managed to lose the sovereign from the throne and lifted Mandarsyah Manilha Sultan (1650-1655) but thanks to the help of the Dutch position Mandarsyah reinstated. After 5 years of the rebellion put down Saidi et al. Prince Saidi brutally tortured to death while Majira prince Sultan and Kalumata receive forgiveness and live in exile.

Sultan Muhammad Nurul Islam, better known by the name of Sultan Sibori (1675 - 1691) was frustrated with the follow - Dutch horn arbitrary - pa. He then established alliances with the rulers of Mindanao Datuk Abdulrahman, but its efforts to join forces less than the maximum because the area - the strategic areas that can be relied upon to base resistance already fallen into the hands of the Dutch by the various agreements that made its predecessors. He was defeated and forced to evacuate to Jailolo. Dated July 7, 1683 Sibori Sultan was forced to sign an agreement that essentially makes Ternate as the dependent kingdom of the Netherlands. This agreement put an end to the Ternate as a sovereign state.

Despite having lost some of their power to keep fighting the next Sultan of Ternate Ternate release from the clutches of the Netherlands. With limited capability because they are always supervised only people capable of supporting the struggle in silence - silence. The last one in 1914 Sultan Haji Muhammad Usman Shah (1896-1927) moves people's resistance in the territory - territory, began in the Banggai region under the leadership of Hairuddin Tomagola but failed.

In Jailolo people Tudowongi, Tuwada and Kao led by Capita Banau managed to cause damage in the Netherlands, many Dutch soldiers who were killed, including the Netherlands Coentroleur Agerbeek, their headquarters laid - apart. However, because the military superiority and a more complete arsenal owned by the Dutch resistance was successfully broken, Banau capita was arrested and sentenced to hang. Sultan Haji Muhammad Usman Shah proved to be involved in this rebellion is therefore based on the Dutch East Indies government's decision, dated 23 September 1915 no. 47, Sultan Haji Muhammad Usman Shah was removed from the position of the sultan and all his property confiscated, he was disposed to Bandung in 1915 and died there in 1927. Post-reduction Sultan Haji Muhammad Usman Shah sultan had vacant positions for 14 years and is run by the customs administration and council Jogugu empire. Had appeared the Dutch East Indies government's desire to remove the sultanate of Ternate, but the intention was nevertheless carried out for fear of a backlash that could trigger a new uprising while Ternate was far from the center of the Dutch government in Batavia.

In the age which is now entering the age of 750 years, the Sultanate of Ternate was still retained even though only a mere symbol. Position as the leader of the sultan of Ternate to the 49th sultan now held by Drs. H. Mudaffar Sjah, BcHk. (Mudaffar II) who was crowned in 1986.

Heritage Ternate
Empire led the archipelago east of Ternate has indeed been falling since the mid-17th century but the influence of Ternate as a kingdom with a long history still felt until centuries later. Ternate has a huge stake in the culture of the archipelago, especially the eastern part of Sulawesi (north and east coast) and the Moluccas. It includes the influence of religion, customs and language.

As the first monarch to embrace Islam Ternate has a major role in efforts pengislaman and the introduction of Sharia-Islamic law in the eastern archipelago and the southern Philippines. Form of imperial organization and the application of Islamic law was first introduced by Sultan Zainal Abidin, a standard that is followed all the kingdoms of the Moluccas nearly without any significant change. The success of the people under the sultan of Ternate Baabullah in ousting Portugal in 1575 is the first victory over the forces of western native archipelago, hence the late Buya Hamka even praised the victory of the people of Ternate has been delayed colonization western archipelago on earth for 100 years as well as strengthening the position of Islam, and if the people of Ternate failed to eastern Indonesia will undoubtedly be the center of Christianity as well as the Philippines.

Ternate position as an influential kingdom also participated in raising the degree of Ternate language as a lingua franca in various regions under its influence. Prof. E.K.W. Masinambow in his writing: "The language of Ternate in the context of language - Austronesian and non-Austronesian language" suggests that the language of Ternate has the greatest impact on the use of Malay society eastern Indonesia. As many as 46% in Manado Malay vocabulary is taken from the language of Ternate. Malay language - Ternate is now used widely in eastern Indonesia, especially North Sulawesi, Central Sulawesi and the eastern coast of South Maluku and Papua with a different dialect - different. Two of the world's oldest Malay manuscript is a manuscript letter of the Sultan of Ternate Abu Hayat II to the King of Portugal on 27 April and 8 November 1521 which is still stored in the museum of Lisbon - Portugal.

See Debus Banten Culture

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See Debus Banten Culture | HISTORY OF CULTUREAfter saying the mantra "you touch my skin haram, haram you drink my blood, you are forbidden to eat flesh, veins kawang, wesi bone, skin of steel, I come out of the womb of the mother. I say la ilaha illahu ". So at that moment he thrust the dagger into the thighs, arms, stomach and other body parts. At that time he also grabbed the neck of the attractions of a small child as he drew his machete into the child. Surprisingly the former is missing a bolt machete scar that is very dangerous for the child.

Attractions that are very dangerous we used to know called Debus, Debus said that martial arts originated from al-Madad area. The longer the martial arts is growing and growing in all societies as an art entertainment offerings for the community. Core of the show is still very strong movement or martial arts and weapons use. Debus arts offerings are widely used and focus on a person's immune players against sharp objects, and sort of sharp weapon is called the Debus.

Grow and develop this art since hundreds of years ago, along with the development of Islamic religion in Punjab. In awalna this art has the function as the spread of religion, but in the Dutch colonial period and during the reign of Sultan Agung Tirtayasa. This martial art is used to evoke the spirit of the warrior and the people who made offerings against Dutch colonialism. Because at that power is not balanced, which has a dutch weapons very complete and sophisticated. Continue to urge the fighters and people of offerings, the only weapons they have no other martial arts heritage of Debus, and they take the fight as guerrillas.

Debus in Arabic which means sharp weapons made of iron, has a pointed tip and slightly rounded shape. With this tool Debus injured players, and usually can not be penetrated even Debus was beaten many times by others. Attractions attraction of this body immunity is another variation of existing Debus performed. Among other things, stabbing stomach with a sharp object or cutting, slicing the body with a machete until the injured and uninjured, eating fire, insert a long needle into the tongue, skin, cheeks until translucent and not injured. Slicing limbs to wounded and bleeding, but can be cured at once, flush the body with hard water are attached to clothes dibadan crushed, chewed glass / glass flake, burn the body. And many more attractions that they do.

In doing this attraction every player has a requirement that heavy conditions, before they perform the ritual ritual performances given by their teacher. Usually done 1-2 weeks prior to the ritual performed. In addition they are also required to have a strong faith and be confident with the teachings of Islam. Precepts for whistle players are not allowed to drink liquor, gambling, playing a woman, or steal. And the players also need to be sure and do not hesitate in carrying out such action, violations committed by a player can greatly endanger the lives of these players.

According to some historical sources, Debus has a relationship with the congregation in the teachings of Islam. Which in essence is very thick with religious philosophy, they are in a very happy face to face with his god. They slammed their ketubuh sharps, no effort but because God alone. If God did not allow a machete, machetes and bullets injure them. And they will not hurt.

At this time many warriors living in the Village Walantaka Debus, District Walantaka, Serang District. Which is unfortunate presence diminished the longer whistle, because the young men would rather find another livelihood. And because this attraction is also quite dangerous to do, because not many players Debus who rarely harmed by lack of exercise and there are "ignorant" to show they are doing. So the longer the cultural heritage is increasingly extinct. In the past we can see the attraction of this whistle offerings in many areas, but now there are only Debus attractions at the event - a specific event. So not every day we can see this attraction. Cultural heritage, which is increasingly eroded by the changing times.

Sultan of Ternate Baabullah

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Sultan of Ternate Baabullah | HISTORY OF CULTURECaliph of Islam Nusantara and Conquering The imperialists. Ternate is currently a 'hot area' due to the nuances of racial conflict, save the gold scratches glory of Islam. History records the existence of several Islamic empire under the wise leadership of the king there. Not surprisingly, the famous adventurer Ibn Battuta called the region as Jazirat Al-Mulk (Kings Peninsula). One phase of the glory that is under the control of the Sultan Baabullah (SB), Ternate Muslim figure who could act as a wise ruler. Under the control of his reign, the kingdom of Ternate able to appear as a fair, could protect all levels of society, including among non-Muslims.

Of course, the Christian missionary movement that devastated the nature of tolerance with the firm will dilibas. This is evidenced when the SB led the resistance against the Portuguese colonialists, who intend to colonize not only economically but also aqeedah. Ruler of Ternate, dubbed `Caliph of Islam Nusantara 'was finally able to get rid of the Portuguese, with a beautiful model and the Islamic resistance.

Baabullah the Conqueror, Born in Ternate, February 10, 1528 M, Baabullah is the 5th generation of Sultan Zainal Abidin (1485-1500). Sultan Bayanullah is the first generation (1500-1522), the second Sultan Noekila Maharani (1522-1532), the third Sultan Tabarija (1532-1536), and the fourth Sultan Chairun Janil (1536-1570).

In youth, Baabullah been trained by the military problems and Salahaka Salahaka Sula Ambon. Both the Commander of the Kingdom of Ternate. Thanks to the guidance of these two characters, in a relatively young age has been appointed Baabullah Kaicil Paparangan (supreme commander of the armed forces).

In the field of Islamic religious knowledge, the court also did not weary of preachers-jemunya Baabullah guide. This gallant young man was prepared to hold the reins of the kingdom of Ternate. Be it, in addition to administrative and military control, mentally as well educated as a potential replacement Chairun sultan. One more, one day he was expected to carry out the task of leading the holy war against the arrogance fi sabilillah Europe. When the Sultan of Ternate, who was appointed to-25, age Baabullah already quite mature, about 42 years. All the inhabitants of the kingdom did not hesitate because he has trained in various real-time battlefield struggle against the Portuguese.

Proved to be. Increasingly fierce resistance against the Portuguese in his reign. In her mind she always remembered the times dodora grief (grief) when he had carried the corpse Chairun Sultan, his father, who destroyed his body, his heart was taken by Portuguese soldiers to be presented to Rajamuda Portuguese in Goa India (1570). But the spirit that made him give up the Ri Jou's to nonakogudu moju se to suba (Only to God poured out hope, though unseen still be worshiped because He exists).

Portuguese arrived in Ternate itself around the year 1511, led by Admiral Francesco Serrano. They received Bayanullah Sultan (King of Ternate the time) very well. But perhaps because of the unpleasant nature of the Portuguese, the arrival of the Europeans that eventually sparked the war. Bayanullah successor to the throne, Sultan Maharani Noekila, emphatically declared war against the Portuguese. Sultan Tabarijja also rekindle the flame of resistance, until the captivity in Goa and finally died in Malacca. SB's father, Sultan Chairun Janil, continued resistance, before it finally died tragically. The father is what continues to rekindle the spirit and consciousness as an independent nation in his son's chest, SB. One of his counsel tape recorded in history are:

"Between Islam and Catholicism there is a huge gap. The history of the triumph of Islam in Andalusia (Spain), Caliph of the West, making them hated and envied the greatness of the Sultanate of Ternate. They suffer from hatred and destruction anywhere at any look at Islamic countries, both in Goa, Malacca, Java, and here we are in the Moluccas. If we lose then at Ternate our fate would be similar to the lands of Islam in Java, Sulawesi and Sumatra. "

An advice that was so impressive for the SB. Moreover, during the Portuguese crafty so this is also known Ternate a few times a fool. For example when the crown prince killed Dayle (1532), the handover of sovereignty to the Portuguese under King Alfonso II (1536), violations of religious oaths and Musquita Chairun Sultan agreed, and the peak of deaths Chairun sadistically. Be the kingdom of Ternate in the SB as the toughest rivals that made the Portuguese colonialists dizzy. Ternate famous mighty fleet, plus vessels from Java (Jepara), Malay, Makassar, Buton, making a complete fleet of Portuguese arms as if he did not mean anything. Finally Tolocce Fort (built in 1572), St. Lucia Fortress (1518), and Saint Pedro (1522), fell into the hands of paramilitary kora-kora Ternate.

Assault tactics made carefully for months, even years. Canga-canga troops consisting of the tribe fire arrows equipped Tobelo toxic. Warriors armed with cannons Kolano Baabullah spoils of the Portuguese fort at Sin Hourra Castel Del Rosario who is the center of Portuguese atrocities in Southeast Asia. In this castle was educated missionaries to spread Catholicism in the Moluccas and the surrounding region. Unfortunately, the Catholic population of Ternate less acceptable because it was too forced.

The war continued raging, both on land and at sea. Ternate kora-kora fleet capable of making frenzy corvette (small warship) and frigates (warships medium size) Portuguese. Dream of the Portuguese as the sole supplier of commodity spices colonial empire as well as forming part of the movement of glory, gospel, gold (glory, spread religion, and wealth) also buried by the mighty army of Ternate.

Governor Alvaro De Atteyda immediate offer of peace with, but was rebuffed. As a result, full of war for five years running (1570-1575). During that same spirit of jihad army was always able kindled SB Ternate. Real victory has begun to appear, being Portuguese more helpless. Defeat barrage, attacked by the disease, food shortages, and the help that never arrived, making the Portuguese increasingly lethargic and weak. SB led the war according to the original pattern of the empire in which Tomagola responsible for the area of  Ambon-Ceram. Toraitu responsible for the kep Sula, Bacan, Luwuk, Banggai, and Buton. Jougugu Dorure and Sultan Jailolo including the coordinator of the destruction in Halmahera and Sulawesi.

Dated December 24, 1575 with a heavy heart, Governor Nuno Pereira de Lacerda raise the white flag of surrender totally to the SB, and presented the town and fortress of Santo Paulo, or the city of Mon Del Rosario Hourra known cruel. Portuguese people flocked out of the city dwellers, in rhythm with the chanting of the Holy Mass on Christmas Eve full of emotion with tears of separation.

Witnessing this, the army Ternate be a gentleman. The Portuguese were allowed to bring their belongings except arms and armaments. The enemies of Islam continue to be killed soldiers gripped by fear of jihad Sultanate of Ternate, was treated like a brother. Once stripped of their weapons, they dintar to the ship to leave the waters of Maluku. They were brought to Manila to join the Spanish and partly to East Timor.

Caliph of the Islamic Empire in the archipelago SB is very uphold Islamic values. Many royal princes yaang end up feeling disappointed with the action SB. For the enemies of Islam who murdered his father SB actually treated well. When many who questioned it, SB gave the word, "O joumbala (the people), know that Islam does not allow a Muslim to take advantage because of the weakness his enemies in the war on the battlefield."

Testimony SB speech that makes the Catholic Portuguese captives increasingly touched by the attitude of religious tolerance is practiced SB. This reflects the attitude of a warrior leader. Like the Caliph Al-Ayyubid Saladin during the Crusades (1187-1193), SB freeing prisoners who can not afford to pay the ransom, as well as prisoners who have mourning his wife.

Power of the Portuguese has been disabled without exception. Proclaimed the victory of the Muslims shouted Ternate, echoed everywhere, calling on God's majesty asthma: Allahu Akbar ... Allahu Akbar!

And this is what poetry is always sung Ternate jihad army in order to bring unity to drive out the Portuguese colonizers:

Moro-moro as my old gise
No ma buluke kakoro siwange
The ma wange sosiru
Jo sara Mapolo sekore noodles
This formoni Bismillah!

(If the call of jihad has been announced wajiblah forwarded to the people, In the sun rises and the people in the sun in, unite with the people in the south wind, And the people of the north wind, rise up to fight. With the intention Bismillah!)

Caliph of Islam Nusantara Empire

SB victory in the war led the `break 'from the Portuguese archipelago widely regarded as a milestone victory for Islam in the archipelago. Ternate Sultanate having a glorious, free from the influence of Portuguese and Spanish. Activity was so intense propaganda carried to all corners of the country. Nusa Tenggara Islands become the most crowded field mission personnel envoy SB preachers. With charisma as a leader, SB has been reliably demonstrated prowess as a coordinator of various different tribes genealogical roots. That's why he was recognized and confirmed as a "caliphate the Islamic Empire" by the Assembly Session of the Kings allied with Ternate in Makassar, the center of the kingdom of Gowa.

As the Caliph of Islam Nusantara 72 ruling the country, putting SB 6 Sangaji in Nusa Tenggara, namely: Sangaji Solor, Sangaji Lawayong (NTT), Sangaji Lamahara, Sangaji Kore (NTB and Bali), Sangaji Mena, and Sangaji Dili (East Timor). On the island of Java, there are 4: Sangaji Lor, Sangaji Kidul, Sangaji Wetan, and Sangaji Kulon. There Sangaji Palembang in Sumatra. While in New Guinea there are five, namely: Sangaji Raja Ampat (Kolano Fat), Papua Sangaji Gamsio (Sorong), Sangaji Mafor (Biak), Sangaji Soaraha (Jayapura), and Sangaji Mariekku (Merauke). In Sulawesi, Makassar was placed in the kingdom of Goa, Bone, Buton Raha, Gorontalo, Sangir, Minahasa, Luwu, Banggai, and Selayar. There is the kingdom of Sabah in Borneo, Brunei, Sarawak, and Kutai. Similarly in the Philippines, there are in the kingdom Mangindano, Zulu-Zamboango. While there own in the Maluku islands Sangaji Seram, Ambon, Sula, Maba, Pattani, Gebe, and others. Even to the Micronesian island near the Marshall Islands Mariana, there Sangaji Gamrangi. Similarly, in Polynesia and Melanesia. Territory so vast, so many who call that Ternate the SB can be used as a model Islamic state in the archipelago.

Great Islamic empire that continues to persist until the SB offspring. His son, Sayeed Barakadli (Sayiyudin), substitute SB, capable of maintaining the existence of Ternate as a great nation. His grandson, Sultan Zainal Abidin, representing the empire of Ternate in the establishment of Aceh-Demak Alliance-Ternate (Triple Alliance). Caliph of Islam Nusantara Empire SB, died on 18 Ramadan 991 H or May 25, 1583 at the age of 53 years. Dodora grief (anguish) struck the earth Ternate, perhaps similar to the current situation when the area was kept raging.