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Transfortatioan In The Ancient Times

HISTORY OF CULTURE | Transfortatioan In The Ancient Times | Means of transportation in ancient times are still very simple. On the river, lake or sea used boats in various sizes and models, made of bamboo and wood materials, etc., transportation on land use elephants, camels, horses, donkeys, cows and buffalo, either directly or by pulling a train of vehicles, cart or the like. 
At Borobudur reliefs boat there, but not limited anara outrigger boat. It's very interesting because in the middle picture of the life of the Buddhist religion also sculpted an outrigger canoe, a type of boat people as a means of transportation between islands in the archipelago in the past. 

In the past never happened migration, ie migration from one country to another. Indians and Chinese came to Indonesia with a variety of purposes, generally for trade. Their trip to Indonesia by boat, both boats India, China boat, canoe or boat Europe Southeast Asia. 

Outrigger canoe Borobudur 
Construction of an outrigger canoe body is no different from others. Which differ only his outrigger, namely flotation devices on either side of the boat which function to maintain balance. With the addition of the outrigger canoe is not easy to sink due to hit the ocean waves. Safety is a primary goal of making the boat. Because the toughness of the outrigger canoe type boats are widely used in his day. 

Borobudur temple carved in the boat drawing 11 (see Th. Van Erp 1923). The forms of these boats by van Erp is divided into three groups: 
  1. Canoes or simple canoe made from a hollowed piece of wood; 
  2. Kano is with the addition of wall board, but without the outrigger; 
  3. Same as number two canoes, but coupled with an outrigger. 
Meanwhile, van der Heide grouping based on these boats and masts cadiknya into five groups (see van der Heide 1927). 

Regarding the outrigger boats that can be described thus. Strong body of wood and mounted on a wall a solid fence. If there is no wind then the boat was passing under the fence dikayuh. On the bridge and the stern there is a large wooden board as if in continuation of the wide boat. The boat is driven with two screens. Big screen moored on the main mast, while the small screen to the two tethered to the pole that is located near the stern. 

Outrigger canoe mounted on each side of the boat. In the reliefs of Borobudur temple was found five outrigger canoe, the first four reliefs carved on the walls of the first row of the main hall under no. 53, 86, 88 and 108. One more sculpted reliefs on the walls of the main hall under the second series no. 41. Five outrigger canoe is a similar body, but not the same, so too cadiknya form. In no relief. 53 cadiknya the form of two beams of wood that was tied in three places in the body posisisejajar boat, then two parallel beams are assembled with three beams coming out of the three places in the body of the boat. 

In no relief. 86 cadiknya consists of four blocks of wood; each of the two beams strapped to himself, then two pairs of bond beam is assembled by three beams coming out of the boat body in three places. In no relief. 88 cadiknya also consists of four wooden beams directly coupled with the beam coming out of the boat body in three places. 
In no relief. 88 cadiknya also consists of four wooden beams directly coupled with the beam coming out of the boat body in three places. In no relief. 41 cadiknya consists of three parallel beams (two beams are adjacent to the outside adjacent) are directly coupled with the three beams coming out of the boat body in three places. Outrigger on the relief model no. 41 is similar to an outrigger on the relief no. 108. 

Steering, Boat and crew 
A relatively large boat can not be steered with a paddle on the side holds the boat. Then placed in the stern of a special steering wheel. A boat crew on duty at the helm during the voyage done. 

Outrigger boats depicted on the reliefs of the first tunnel without a roof: just no relief. 41 in the second hallway there is a section that is described given the cap that covers about one-fourth of the length of the boat. 

Passenger boat is not known, but the number of boatmen who work revealed in relief. In no relief. 53 manned six people: the relief of no. 86 manned 17 people, while on reliefs no. 88 manned 10 people. pulling on the relief no. 88 is a awaknyadi describe being defecated outside the stern of the boat while holding on to the wooden beams sticking out. The crew outrigger boat no. 108 manned nine people. 

The length and width of the outrigger canoe is unknown. The crew of the boat that appears in the reliefs can not be used as a scale because the relief is not a perspective, but rather an imaginative picture. 

Archipelago Boat Other 
In the archipelago known various forms of boats, including boats pinisi from Bugis, Mayang boat from Cirebon, boat canoe from Batavia, Semarang's boat jonggolan from Surabaya, Pasuruan and boats from the boat Sekong j Ukung of Bali and Lombok, Boat Sekong and boats also posted outrigger. 

At the Borobudur reliefs also sculpted without an outrigger boat, but can not identify the names. The regular boat depicted on the Balustrade hall on the fourth row no. 54, the first aisle Balustrade series no. 193 and the main wall of the hall's first series under no. 108. The boats are depicted with one screen only. 

Boad Is Transfortations Of Sriwijaya
In Southeast Asia since the time of Srivijaya in the seventh century AD have used a variety of boats. Inscription Kedukan Bukit many Saka 605 or AD 683, which is found on the edge of the city of Palembang Srivijaya kingdom mentions an expedition conducted by Dapunta Hyang other boat and walk through the land route. 

There are three places the findings of ancient boat, which is in Swimming Pinisi (1989). River Fruit of Samirejo (1988), all near the city of Palembang. Findings boat on site Swimming Pinisi and Samirejo made with "board-ikat technique and kupingan-binding", the foreign terms is called: "Swen-plank and lashed-lug technique", boat building techniques thus developed in Southeast Asia so often called: " engineering tradition of Southeast Asia ". The remaining boats in Samirejo referred have been examined in the laboratory by the method of Carbon 14 and produces information that the rest of the boat is from the year 610-775 AD 

Description inscriptions of Srivijaya and the findings artepak boat around Palembang shows that long before an outrigger canoe carved Borobudur, has many other boats used as means of transportation in Southeast Asia. Maybe once the Riau Islands, called the Sea People who live on the boat, continue to play a role in developing the Kingdom of the fleet-royal who has appeared in the Straits of Malacca, including the kingdom of Srivijaya.

1 comment:

My Blog said...

if in ancient times there are vehicles like now, it might be cool to go everywhere, do not get seasick ..

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