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The Occurrence of Indo-European Community

HISTORY OF CULTURE | The Occurrence of Indo-European Community | Person or the Indo (abbreviation of the name in Dutch, Indo-Europeaan, "Europe-East Indies") is the ethnic group that exists (or ever existed) in Hindia-Belanda/Indonesia and has now become the largest minority ethnic group in the Netherlands . These ethnic groups are characterized from a common racial origin, legal status, and cultural.

The Indo is a descendant of a mixture of people from certain ethnic in Europe (mainly the Netherlands, but also German, Belgian, and French / Huguenot) with Caucasian features and people from non-European ethnic certain Hindia-Belanda/Indonesia. By law, most of the status of European citizens in the Netherlands Indies (Europeanen). They uphold the values ??of European culture (especially the Netherlands) with a lot of local influence of Indonesia on a certain degree in their everyday lives. However, in this ethnic group also included Europeans who came and settled on the ground long enough, who was born in Indonesia or Indonesia, for among the half-breed among themselves there is a wide range of phenotypes, so the appearance factor can not be the sole barrier for this ethnic group. Mixed-blood groups are those commonly known as the Indo, Mesties (Bld.), or Mestizos (Port.), while those with "pure-blooded" Europeans are known as full-blooded (Mel.), blijvers (Bld.), or creole.

Second World War and afterwards became the starting point for the Indo diaspora, so that today their descendants are often found in the Netherlands, Indonesia, United States (U.S.), Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and several other countries. In the Netherlands, the Indo is now regarded as the largest minority group (a total of about 500,000 people). They are known by several terms, such as Indisch Nederlander or Indisch only. Culturally they are closer to the Moluccan ethnic groups in the Netherlands. In the U.S. they are known as Dutch Indonesian Indonesian or Dutch, and most settled in California. In Indonesia alone, their numbers are few and mostly descendants integrated / merged with various other ethnic groups habits despite the Dutch language still runs in the family.

The term "Eurasian" in the use of Indonesian contemporary shift in meaning and taxa used (ambiguously). The term is also used to refer to all the people of Indonesia - as short for "Indonesian people" - as well as hybrid mix of people to call Indonesia with other nations, regardless of the background of the origins of non-Indonesian, which does not need Europe.


The Indo formed almost the same age with the arrival of European merchants, preceded by the Portuguese, then Spanish, English, and then the Netherlands. Other European nations, like Belgium, Germany, France, and Denmark came afterward.

Initial period of establishment: Portuguese and Spanish Era (1500-1600)
Explorers from Europe began to busy to come to the archipelago at the beginning of the 16th century, as a consequence of the Age of Exploration (Age of Exploration) that hit Europe. Many of them are attracted to or forced to settle in the country of destination. They are the Portuguese and Spanish along with their slaves from India, Sri Lanka, Malacca, or the eastern archipelago (such as Maluku, Bali, or Gowa / Bugis). Europe's mission came as business and trade, but some are settled as a religious duty (mission). Quite a few who later married or even having a child out of wedlock with the locals, since immigrants from Europe are all men. In Malaya, their descendants currently referred to as Malay Europe. In Indonesia, the remnants of the mixture can be found in the Moluccas, Flores, Kampung Tugu (Cilincing, North Jakarta) and Lamno Kampung Jaya, Aceh Barat. This latter community is now almost extinct due to Tsunami disaster 2004

Despite this relatively short period, there are many cultural heritage of this community that can still be seen up to now. The Portuguese way of associating a relatively open and not racist to make culture a lot of easily absorbed. Various tropical American plants, several types of cake (especially cakes), a number of common household products, as well as a variety of games and entertainment from Europe began to be known archipelago community through these migrants and their descendants. Dutch report on the 19 th century even claimed that the Portuguese language is still used even by people mixed European descent (mestizo) in Batavia. Keroncong music is a form of music from the mixed legacy of this period and later became one of Indonesia penciri-European culture in the 20th century.

Being a class of its own community: Under the VOC (1600-1799)
Dutch chronicler, Vlekke, many described the peri-Indonesia European society in the 17th century until the 18th. [4] In those days, a centralized European-blooded people in Batavia by the number does not reach 10,000 people, yet powerful. Their lives were difficult, evident from the many who died several months after a stay in Batavia. Practically all Christian. The language they use is a mixture of Dutch, Portuguese, and Malay (Markets).

They can be separated into two groups: trekkers and blijvers. Trekkers (or the present so-called expatriates) is the Europeans who wish to return to Europe immediately after the task is completed and blijvers are those who are able to adapt, then settled in the Dutch East Indies. Blijvers whose wife is a lot of local people (dubbed Nyai, as in the legend Nyai Dasima) or the Chinese. Both groups also differ in orientation. The trekkers tend to defend the values of Europe (west) so it is always exclusive and elitist, while the blijvers tend to immerse themselves into local values, although they remain the representation of European culture. Nevertheless, the Dutch people as a whole is generally more absorbed in the local values rather than vice versa.

Them is at the core of society characterized by a cosmopolitan middle class in Batavia at the time. These people are afraid to bathe, likes a drink (wine Batavia's best-known all over Asia), and likes gardening. Examples of the Europe-Indonesia is Pieter Elberfeld (Erberfeld, according Vlekke), an-Siam German descent who (allegedly) led the riots in 1721, and C. Suythoff, who is the son-famous Dutch painter, Rembrandt.

Actually just a strong influence of VOC in Batavia, part of Java, as well as in the Moluccas & Minahasa. In these areas began to emerge based on social class differences in skin color, although it has not been institutionalized by law. European Communities and their descendants occupy a separate area from other groups. In this society also began to occur segregation. The trekkers and blijvers who do not have mixed blood (called "Dutch-blooded") considers himself more "higher" than those with mixed blood. The mixture (miesling) is usually employed in the business offices to help the tasks of recording or the field. Their education less attention and many associate with the slaves. As a result, they absorb the local culture and lacked sufficient Dutch language skills. Even noted that at the end of the 18th century many Dutch descent / European who is more fluent in Portuguese or Malay creole-market than the Dutch language. From this they then appear peculiar dialect of the Dutch language: Nederlands Indies, and a kind of creole language known as Pecok language. At this time also a number of local slaves freed and later embraced Christianity gradually absorbed participate in European society, Indonesia.

The golden age: the Netherlands East Indies (1800-1942)
Dutch mixed family (father) and Indo (mother) has been formed since the presence of many VOCs, and strengthened in the 19th century and into the 20th.

The big change that occurred in Europe in the early 19th century (Napoleonic wars) and the enactment Cultuurstelsel by the Governor-General van den Bosch makes a European-Indonesia began to spread to various places in the archipelago, especially in Java and parts of Sumatra, particularly as to take care of plantations estates. Many migrants, mostly from the Netherlands plus some German and English. For setting the legal order, the separation into three groups, Europeanen (the Europeans), Vreemde Oosterlingen (Foreign East), and inlanders (native) applied since 1854 (Regeringsreglement, "the Indian Administrative Act") that reinforce the separation of the Europe-Indonesia from other components of Indonesian society. Ironically, although this legislation include the Eurasian into the group of Europeans, but also reinforce the segregation within the ranks Europeanen, and indirectly detrimental to the mixture. This occurs because the start berdatangannya people of European (mainly Dutch) to try. As a result, the "full-blooded" (European-Indonesian people who are not mixed) began to increase in proportion compared to the mixture. Descendants of the mixture (this is when the term "Indo", short for Indo-Europeanen, came into use) is often considered inferior by Europeans blooded though they may have rights, privileges, and obligations when his father 'mengakui'nya as a European .

According to the rules that apply the same period, Europeanen can not have private land, but can be rented from the natives. On the other hand, according to the rules of the Indo paid per hour lower than the full-blooded and trekkers because it has the educational background is lower. This led to discontent among the Indo.

Movement liberalism makes many Europeans, Indonesia began associating according to ideology, and in the 20th century nationalist movement into plants in the Netherlands Indies. Politically, the Europe-Indonesia at the beginning of the 20th century split into two groups: those who still want to maintain a full relationship with the Dutch (colonial) and those who have aspirations for autonomy. A number of Europeans and Eurasians was clearly supports Boedi Oetomo, the first nationalist organization patterned movement. Indo people as well as "full-blooded" was then consolidated. In 1912 formed the Indische Partij (IP) by EFE Douwes Dekker with the support of many Europeans with the aim of full independence for the Dutch East Indies.

This radical organization a year later silenced by the administration of Governor-General of AWF Idenburg because it is considered dangerous to the colony. Among the Indo majority of pro-Dutch and then set up an organization to counter radicalism is also the IP, namely Indo-Europees Verbond (IEV) in 1919 by Karel Zaalberg. IEV is supported by the government of the colony and soon became the dominant faction in the People's Council which had stood in 1916.

In 1930 there were 246,000 people known to Europe-Indonesia (Europeanen), including Indo. This amount includes approximately 0.4% of the total 60.7 million population of the Netherlands East Indies. Of that amount, 87% of Dutch nationality. A quarter of Dutch citizens born in the Netherlands.

Dark days: Occupied Japan and Indonesia's Independence Revolution (1939-1950)
Since the time this started happening a massive emigration of Europeans to the outside of Indonesia, Indonesia. In the Second World War, the Indo has a bleak future, living both in Europe and Asia. In Europe, Nazi Germany occupied antagonize many nations and they are not "Aryan" original (native Europeans). In Asia, the Pacific war, Japanese troops treated cruelly colony population, especially against those from Europe (including Indo).

Many of those who can escape, go to countries like USA, UK (one European country that is not occupied by the Nazis), Australia (ignoring the policy of race-White Australia Policy), New Zealand and Canada because they can be accepted as an escape war.

Very difficult situation experienced by those associated with Germany. In the initial period (1939-1942) they were arrested by the Dutch East Indies government and expelled. Walter Spies, a famous artist, a victim at this time. The situation improved somewhat but still worse when the Japanese entered. They were released (because of the arrested later are those of the Allied countries, such as Dutch, English or French) but subject to false arrest because the same appearance. As a result, many are opting out of the Dutch East Indies.

Post-independence Indonesia and the Diaspora (1945-1965)
Indo people aboard the "Castel Felice" arrived in Rotterdam in 1958, following the events of "Black Santa"

Indonesia against the Dutch Resistance who tried to master the Indonesian re-create the feeling of hostility among native Indonesia against their pro-Dutch. They are suspicious of anyone who resemble Europeans (all white people are considered pro-Dutch) or who support the occupation again. Eurasians, who most wants the return of the Netherlands, fear and many who fled to the colony British colony - Malaysia and Singapore. So began a wave of "repatriation" of European citizens to the Netherlands-Indonesia. Recognition of Indonesia at the end of 1949 triggered an increase in the number of repatriates. Not easy for many people Europe-Indonesia to live in the Netherlands because of the rejection by the Dutch citizens who feel overwhelmed by the search for employment. As a result many of them were later re-emigrated to third countries, such as the United States, Australia, New Zealand, or Canada.

Between 1945 and 1965 there were an estimated 300,000 people are Dutch, Indo, Indonesia or the people who choose to go / return to the Netherlands. This migration occurs in waves. Many of them have never been to the Netherlands at all.

At least migration occurs in five stages:

The first phase, 1945-1950: after the surrender of Japan, about 100,000 Japanese prisoners released and repatriated to the Netherlands, even though some people opted to stay in Indonesia and having a difficult time during the War of Independence.

The second phase, 1950-1957: After the recognition of the sovereignty of the Republic of Indonesia, a number of Dutch soldiers and government officials sent home, after being asked to choose. Among them are many people ex-KNIL: 4000 Moluccan and Dutch troops from Africa. The total number is unknown. This process sparked the uprising of the Republic of South Maluku

The third stage, 1957-1958: After the "Nieuw-Guinea-kwestie", about 20,000 people repatriated from Papua to the Netherlands.

The fourth phase, 1962: after the Netherlands are required to leave Papua and Papua submitted to UNTEA, Netherlands repatriated about 14,000 personnel. At the time of emigration UNTEA also occur around 500 people of Papua to the Netherlands.

The fifth stage, 1957-1964: After Indonesia imposed a citizenship law (Act 62/1958), which forced the people of Europe-Indonesia must choose citizenship. If you want to settle they must go through the naturalization process and if you want to remain as the Dutch (Europeens) they had to leave Indonesia. At this time also a lot happening emigration of people of foreign descent who do not want to be a citizen of Indonesia.

Gait culture before the Indo diaspora
At the end of the 19th century Europeans and Indo many elements absorb the local culture and gave birth Indisch culture, as a hybrid between European culture (the Netherlands) and various local cultures of Indonesia. Kebaya with unique pieces and the color white is often worn by European women. Style batik motif also has its own uniqueness. Photo taken 1888, a collection of Tropenmuseum Amsterdam.

The Indo has a mixture of cultural traits of Western culture (European) and Eastern cultures (Indonesia or Chinese). Mixing of cultures is a bit much to do with the degree of "ketercampuran" each individual's racial and ethnic backgrounds of their families. This makes this group difficult to define, even by its own members, so they are difficult to unify themselves as a political force. This situation is a disaster for them when the Pacific War and the early days of Indonesia's Independence Revolution.

The Eurasia (Mesties) dominate the physical appearance of this ethnic group. Population census in 1930 showed that about 75% Europeanen group has mixed lineage. The rest are full-blooded Europeans ("pure") as well as people of other ethnic groups were considered as members of this legal group. The complexity of racial backgrounds form a range of phenotypes (outward appearance) a broad, though not all members of the class of Europeans identify themselves as ethnic Indo, particularly among trekkers (expatriates). Appear then the various terms to mention the degree of darkness of skin color, such as Koffie met Melk ("milk coffee"), kwart over ZES (five forty-five), Half Zeven ("six thirty"), Zeven uur bijna ('almost seven "), until zo als Zwart Mijn Schoen (" dark color of my shoes ") that most" dark ". Also known in the community that memorable degrading epithets, like "sinyo" or "noni" is given to children Indo. By indigenous communities is being expanded nickname for all the children as the white group.

Among Indo been generally known, the higher the "degree keeropaan" someone, the higher the degree of social development. So it is not surprising that most attempts to identify themselves as Europeans. The women aspire to marry a European. Local cultural aspects are considered more "low" or "rough".

Social stratification is a little more nuanced racist emerge from the origin of the Indo, most of whom are descendants of concubinage widespread habit among men of Europe in the 17th century and the 18th due to a lack of European women. Mestizo people regarded as "the offspring of adultery". Most of them were raised by their mothers in the local traditions, so that education is considered less, also in the Dutch language skills. VOC, as a ruler, did not seem too concerned with this situation. However, even the inclusion of local cultural elements into their differentiator and the Dutch settlers, still maintained even until the end of the 20th century.

The Indo is used by the colonial Dutch as a "buffer" to avoid the cultural friction that led to political turmoil. The same fate suffered by the Chinese-Indonesia, which became "bumper" economic colony. They were despised by the Dutch full-blooded, but also despise the natives who are considered incompetent and lazy. The Dutch have a full-blooded for the Indo ridicule: the word "Indo" is considered as an abbreviation of indolent (lazy). Full-blooded Europeans are socially and legally positioned higher than those of mixed descent. Although in some ways they blend in because the same cultural orientation, in many other things (like food and aesthetic tendencies) both groups are quite different. This is evident when the diaspora of Europe-Indonesia to the Netherlands after the Second World War. Many Dutch people who are not prepared to accept the presence of Indo people so most of them emigrated to third countries, such as the United States, Canada, Australia or New Zealand.

Most of the political line-Indonesia among European colonial period tend to the status quo: they want the power of the Dutch in the Netherlands Indies. This is motivated by social trends such as those mentioned previously. However, there is a small part that wants self-government. The last group is at the core of one of Indonesia's independence movement. Indische Bond (1899) and Insulinde can be regarded as representing the pro-government groups themselves (not under the Dutch). Meanwhile, the Indo-Europeesch Verbond (IEV, 1919) can be regarded as the Indo-oriented organization in the Netherlands. [11] Indian Party (Indische Partij, 1911) can be regarded as the most radical political articulation of them at the beginning of the 20th century, because organization is the first time openly express the idea of pro-independent (self-government for Indiers). Too bad that these organizations lack a lot of support and short-lived because soon silenced the colonial government.

Intense relationship with the local culture brought many cultural influences in the life of European society, Indonesia, and vice versa. Van der Veur (1968) discusses a lot of customs (customs) among Indo [8]. The main characteristic is a strong familial ties. Indo people fond of hunting, also practiced martial arts (especially from among those who are familiar with the local community) and kite-flying game.

Most of them are Christians, but trust is also a variety of local superstitions and also practice salvation / festivity to commemorate a life stage. Among Indo Pauper (those living with the natives) even knew voodoo.

The language used by the Indo VOC during pijin Portuguese is a language that mixed with Malay Market. It is known from a seminary records from the second half of the 18th century. Influx of immigrants and farm workers from the Dutch in the 19th century encouraged the strengthening of the Dutch language usage, but there are many "violations" by their grammar, such as the transfer of phonemes, blending with the words or the structure of the Malay language, and the neglect of gender of words. Increased awareness of ethnic politics will push this figure even Indo, Ploegman, to make the Dutch language as a language variant of this Indisch "which brings together various community groups within the culture of everyday life".

In the world of literature, some quality papers produced by authors such as CF Winter, van der Tuuk, Ernest Douwes Dekker, Ucee (SH Coldenhoff), Louis Couperus, Hans van de Wall, and E. du Perron. From the period after the Second World War appeared such names as J. Boon (Vincent Mahieu / Tjalie Robinson), Rob Nieuwenhuys, Adriaan van Dis, and Johannes Gertrudes Resink (poetry).

In the field of painting in January Toorop is the most prominent names. Indo painters painting is a supporter of the flow of Mooi Indie / Indonesie depicting the romance of nature and daily life of Indonesia. Walter Spies (although he is a full-blooded but loved the culture of Bali) is known as the developer of the flow of a typical Balinese decorative painting.

The Indo known talent in the arts of music and performing arts. In the art of musical orientation to western music is quite thick, even arguably among the Indo-class and lower middle-western music is an ambassador for the non-European societies in the Netherlands Indies / Indonesia.

Keroncong musical form, rooted in the Portuguese music, preserved by the Eurasian and obtain a strong reverberations throughout society at the beginning of the 20th century through theatrical performances soap opera. Soap opera introduced by August Mahieu, an Indo Indo gather some other people to organize theatrical hybrid: a European-style but with costumes a la the Middle East. The show was popular in all circles of society (lower) Dutch East Indies, and gave birth to various epigones are also popular then. Among Indo also then that introduces jazz in the Netherlands Indies. Jack Lesmana (Jack Lemmers), an Indonesian who became a major jazz figure of Indonesia, has been familiar with this form of music since his childhood. In the popularity of rock'n roll, Indo people also became the bike. Sukarno's anti-Western policy to make music is stopped developing in Indonesia, but still growing in Europe, along with the diaspora of Indo. The Tielman Brothers is the most prominent bands of the Eurasian and very popular in Europe.

In terms of cuisine, cooking European art in the hands of the Indo become rich spices and has a distinctive taste. Indo people really liked the local cuisine, and even enjoy the salad. Rijsttafel, a form of presentation of typical dishes Indies, was developed from the form in the ceremonial presentation of salvation. Typical pastries are also emerging, such as klappertart, layer cake legit, and bika Ambon, as well as sponge cake. The development of culinary arts is also related to the Indo penchant for partying.

In terms of fashion, appearing in the 19th century the typical wear kebaya European women; even then it appears Dutch batik, batik motifs European influence. The Netherlands is experiencing revivalisasi kebaya in modern Indonesian society.

People today's Indo
Since the New Order, a European-Indonesia in Indonesia is only a very small part of the population of Indonesia. Practical strict immigration rules do not allow the entry of Europeans into Indonesia without going through the naturalization that takes many years. Culturally they are usually absorbed into the cosmopolitan culture of Jakarta, or the local culture where they live. They can be said is not a unique subculture in Indonesia.

The situation is somewhat different in the Netherlands. Dutch statistics agency CBS, in 1990 recorded 472 600 residents of the Netherlands has a descent Indonesia, 187,700 of whom were born in the Netherlands Indies / Indonesia. According to the 2003 demographic report, in 2001 recorded 458 000 people which is the first and second generation descendants of the Dutch East Indies. In the Netherlands they are significant minority groups and has its own cultural distinctiveness. Statistically, they are still separated and considered as the largest minority group, as well as the most integrated minority group. The annual Festival Big Night Market is an activity of the European community in the Netherlands-Indonesia. Krancher, a U.S. citizen of European descent, Indonesia and never settled in Indonesia, noting critically the "revival" in the third generation descendants of Indo in the Netherlands.

Indonesia-European descent are also scattered throughout the world, either directly from Indonesia or from the Netherlands. Many of them live in the United States, Canada or UK, several of whom became quite prominent.


Many people predicted that Indonesia as a European-ethnic with its own distinctive traits will disappear, even from their own ranks. Causes The most obvious is because there are no incentive for heritage preservation of their lifestyle. Young people in general tend to absorb western culture, which was since the beginning of the orientation of the majority of the Indo. In Indonesia, Indo fading culture among the younger generation because it has become an integral part of modern Indonesian society can even be said to some extent helped shape the distinctive culture of Indonesia. Indonesia's independence hero, Sutan Sjahrir, never mentioned the fate of the Indo in Indonesia post-independence:

"... The position of Indo ... in our colonial society has changed. Over time, the Indo slowly became an Indonesian, or can also be said that Indonesia is gradually reached a level similar to the Indo. Changes occurring in the process of transformation in our society is first of all put the Indo in a favorable position, and now the same process that took advantage. Even if they retain their status under the law keeropaan, they still will align with the people of Indonesia, as more long Indonesia will be more and more people are educated than the Indo. position that benefits them losing their social base, and as a result the position it will disappear. " (Sutan Sjahrir, 1937)

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