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HISTORY OF CULTURE | THE INDONESIAN TRADITION PRAAKSARA  | Aksara is an ancient writings that provide the knowledge for the Indonesian people in history.And always be memorable as the ancestral human pre-history in Indonesia.

 A. Indonesia Society Traditions History Period Praaksara

1. Indonesian society periodization praaksara
Indonesia before the public knows already has a tradition of historical characters. The purpose of history is how a tradition of community was aware of his past. Consciousness is then he's recorded and transmitted to subsequent generations. Recording and inheritance then becomes a living tradition to grow and develop in society. How can people who are not familiar with writing and pass on his past record? How can people who are not familiar with his past writings make sense? Community in understanding the past will be determined by the nature of the time the public mind or "mental age".

From public life praaksara times, we get the legacy of the tools from stone, bone, wood, and metal as well as paintings on cave walls. The past is only left traces in history has become an important component in the effort to write the history of human life. The traces contain information that can be used as material of historical writing and will be passed on from generation to generation to generation to generation. Traces the history of the historical traces of history is that experts say has information about historical events, so it can be used for the writing of history. Historically there are two traces, ie traces of historical objects and intangible tangible traces of historical writing. Historical traces of tangible objects is the result of culture / tradition in ancient times, for example, the tradition of Paleolithic era, Mesolitikum, Neolithic, megalithic, and perundagian.

a. The tradition of human life moves (Paleolithic era)
Humans live in an age of change, including species Pithecanthropus. They live from gathering food (food gathering), living in caves, still looking wild, has not been able to master nature, and not settle. Their culture is often called the culture and the culture Ngandong Pacitan. Called Pacitan culture because the tools are found in Pacitan culture (in the Pegu Mountains South Coast Sewu Java) a chopper (penetak ax) is also called a handheld ax. Because it is still made of stone it is called a stone culture (culture stone). Cultural tools are found in the village Ngandong Ngandong (Ngawi area of ??East Java). There are tools made of bone is called bone culture. Also the ax found at Ngandong handheld, objects of stone flakes and a beautifully colored stone called Chalcedon.

b. Enhancement of human life into life half lived / semisedenter (age Mesolitikum)
They already have to live like a kjokkenmoddinger progress (garbage shellfish) danabris sous roche (cave dwelling). These tools are hand-held axes (pebble) is also called Sumatra axes, hatchets (Hache courte), and pipisan.

c. Old human tradition of sedentary life (Neolithic era)
At this age, humans have started producing food, which is seeking to commercialize a simple farming fields. Types of crops are sweet potatoes, taro, rice, and barley. They use tools such as pickaxes better square or oblong rectangular axes and axes used to work the land. Rectangular axes found in Sumatra, Java, Bali and West Kalimantan, while on the Malay Peninsula is called ax ax shoulder. Hatchet shaped oval, commonly found in Sulawesi, Papua, or the islands of eastern Indonesia. Flakes tool for arrowheads and spear found in Sampung Lawa Cave (East Java) and Cabbenge (South Sulawesi). At Malolo (East Sumba) found a jug of water. At this time, there was migration from mainland Asia (Tonkin in Indochina) to the archipelago that came to be called the Proto Malays in 1500 BC through the western and northern roads. Equipment used is of rectangular axes, pickaxes square, pebble (ax Sumatra), and ax handheld. Culture was by Madame Madeleine Colani, French historian, called the culture-Hoabinh Bacson. Belief time farming is to worship the god of nature.

d. Megalithic tradition
At this age, made of large stone tools such as menhir, dolmen, and sarcophagi. Menhir is a large stone monument where the spirits of ancestors, are found in South Sumatra, Central Sulawesi, and Kalimantan. Dolmen is a large stone table (altar), contained in Bondowoso, East Java. Sarcophagus is a large stone coffin tomb. In Sulawesi, known as waruga sarcophagus.

e. Traditions time perundagian
After settling down, they are getting good at making tools, even with the arrival of the Deutero Malays in 500 BC, they were able to make a tool of metal (often called the Dong Son culture because it comes from the Dong Son). Age is called the age of technology proficiency. They also have been familiar with rice fields and irrigation systems. Types of metal objects are made in Indonesia at this time, among others, as follows.
  1. Nekara, which is kind of a big drum found in Bali, Bread, Alor, Kei, and Papua.
  2. ax funnel, so called because the funnel-shaped stalk. Other designations are the axes of shoes. These objects are used for ceremonies. Many are found in Makassar, Java, Bali, Island Selayar, and Papua.
  3. Bronze statue, discovered in the area Bangkinang, Riau, and Limbangan, Bogor. In addition, there are jewelry bronze, iron objects, and beads. The belief in time perundagian is ancestor worship of spirits (animism).
2. The characteristics of the community praaksara
Once our ancestors came and settled in the archipelago, they abandon the tradition, the rules of society, and religion are adhered to by them and their descendants. This tradition was passed on to the public until now. The ability of our ancestors knew before writing and before the Hindu-Buddhist culture influenced by Brandes grouped as follows.

a. Sailing ability
Ancestors of Indonesia came from Yunan BC. They've been good at the sea and had to use boats to arrive in Indonesia. Sailing ability is developed in this new land, ie in the archipelago, given the geography of the archipelago consists of many islands. This condition requires the use boats to reach the other islands. One feature of the boats that used our ancestors is an outrigger canoe, the boat that uses the tools of bamboo or wood that is placed on either side of the boat. Making the boat is usually done in mutual cooperation by men.

After a period of per-undagian, shipping activities have also increased. Bercadik boat which is the oldest remains of transport equipment was developed as a means of transportation and trade. Evidence of ability and progress on the sail is sculpted reliefs of Borobudur temple from the 8th century. The reliefs depict three types of boats, namely
1) a large boat that bercadik,
2) a large boat that is not bercadik, and
3) canoes

b. Ability bersawah
System of rice began to be known of Indonesia since the Neolithic era, the man settled life. They are compelled to seek something that is produced (food producing). Rice farming system starts from a simple farm system that has not been much use of technology, then increased with the irrigation technology was born until the rice system.

c. Know astronomy
Knowledge of astronomy (astronomy) already owned the ancestors of Indonesia. Indonesia has come to know the community of science and utilize technology as the season winds driving force in the shipping and trading activities. Besides being used to identify the season, the science of astronomy has also been used as a guide the direction of the voyage, the Star of South Dipper and Southern Cross (the Javanese called Latitude Gubug Penceng) for pointing to the south and the North Star Big Dipper to point north. The ability of astronomy and the monsoons have led them to sail west to the island of Madagascar, to the east to Easter Island, and southward to New Zealand and to the north to the Japanese Islands. Astronomical knowledge is also used in agriculture by utilizing Star plow as early harbinger of the rainy season.

d. Mocopat System
Mocopat is a belief system that is based on the division of the four directions of the compass, ie north, south, west and east. Mocopat system associated with the establishment of buildings, downtown or the government (the palace), the square, a place of worship, markets, and prisons. Laying the building was made of four angle scheme where every corner has a magical ability and strength. That is why every village in ancient times has always given the offerings at certain times, even on the market according to the calculation is also associated with mocopat system, namely
  • placed westward pound fell Monday and Tuesday,
  • the east is placed legi fell on Friday,
  • located south Pahing falls on Saturday and Sunday,
  • north wage laid down on Wednesday and Thursday, and
  • towards the middle is placed kliwon fell on Friday and Saturday.
So the pattern of community composition mocopat is a belief in arranging and placing a four-cornered building, the administrative center of the capital structure are the square around the palace, and there are buildings of worship, markets, and prisons.

e. Puppet arts
Original puppet arts stem from ancestor worship of spirits. Wayang puppet originally manifested as ancestors played by puppeteers at night. With blinds and lighting systems repose behind and moving dolls digerak shadow puppets that look as if alive. If the spirits of ancestors possessed puppeteer, the puppeteer will voice their ancestors that contain sound advice to their children and grandchildren. Upon arrival to the archipelago Hinduism then replaced ancestral story Ramayana and Mahabharata. Then replaced with a puppet character in the Mahabharata story. Function was switched as the show and the audience to see from the front curtain.

f. Art gamelan
Art gamelan something to do with the art of puppet. Art gamelan is used to accompany wayang. At the time of planting season is over an ancient society that made gamelan musical instruments, developed the art of batik, and held all-night puppet show to be seen by the public in the vicinity.

g. Batik Art
Batik art is a craft to make images on cloth. How to draw the appropriate use of canting is filled with liquid wax material (the Javanese call it dinner) that has been heated, and then depicted on the fabrics according to his motives.

h. Community settings
Our ancestors lived in groups. They agreed to live together, living mutual cooperation, and democratic. They choose a leader who is considered to protect the public from a variety of disorders including disorders spirit so that a leader is considered to have supernatural powers more. Method of electing leaders who are so-called primus inter pares, is that especially among the many. Thus, a leader is best for them together.

i. Economic system with the familiar trade
Human needs are always demanding to be met. To meet the necessities of life, ancient peoples exchanged goods (barter) from one area to another.

j. Belief system
Humans are composed of physically and spiritually led to a spiritual belief that later personified in real terms. System of public confidence in Indonesia began to grow in the lifetime of hunting and gathering food, as evidenced by the discovery of cave wall paintings in South Sulawesi red hand-shaped cap with fingers outstretched. The painting was interpreted as a source of strength or a symbol of protection to prevent evil spirits. Humans live in an age of farming have believed in gods of nature that created the flood, volcano eruption, earthquake, and so on.

So, can we know that the tradition of Indonesia before the familiar paper is as follows.
  1. Of community organizations already exist, namely the existence of organized society, democratic, and choose their leaders with the primus inter pares in the form of tribalism.
  2. Community or social institution is a community that live in groups as social beings, and worked together.
  3. Having a knowledge of nature, namely utilizing the surrounding nature as a form of caring and maintaining the natural environment.
  4. Already familiar with the system of rice field.
  5. Sailing and trading capabilities by utilizing a monsoon, and even they had dared to navigate the vast sea.
  6. Perundagian already have the technology, ie, metal casting system with bivalve and a cire Perdue.
  7. Belief system was originally worshiped the spirits of ancestors and worship the gods.
  8. Already have a system of barter economy.
3. Leaving the Past Ways
Collective experience of a society is defined as the past. Some ways that can be used by people to pass on his past is as follows. Try to look at and explore the mythology that exists around your area. After that, ask your elders or community leaders or anyone who can provide information about the mythology. Next, write in story form. The results describe the class, in turn. Innovative and Creative Period History Pre Literacy and Literacy 25
  1. Training and impersonation. Knowledge and abilities that have been owned and passed down through imitation training, either by word or deed. For example cleverness made tools of stone or of iron. They passed intelligence to the next generation through the impersonation of making those tools. Including also knowledge and skill hunting, cooking food, farming, bersawah and so on.
  2. Narrative, ie by way of said orally. That is, the skills and knowledge possessed by the people passed on the way is told to future generations.
  3. The work, although people were not familiar with writing but have had the sense, with his wits end result of cultural communities. With this culture he left his past to the next generation. Thus through the work or the culture it has, then it can be known about the patterns of life and community life.

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