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HISTORY OF CULTURE | THE EMERGENCE OF ARAB TRIBE - INDONESIA | Arab tribes-Indonesia is Indonesia which has a population of ethnic Arabs and ethnic descendants of native Indonesia. At first they generally live in Arab settlements are scattered in various cities in Indonesia. The Dutch colonial times, they are regarded as foreign Asian nation along with the ethnic Chinese-Indonesian and Indonesian-Indian tribes. But as the ethnic Chinese and Indians, not a few of the Arab-Indonesia to help Indonesia's independence struggle.

History of arrival

In the aftermath of a major schism among Muslims that led to the killing of the fourth Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib, begin to occur displacement (hijra) from the massive descendants across the world. When Imam Ahmad Al-Muhajir migrated from Iraq to the Hadramaut region in Yemen about a thousand years ago, the descendants of Ali ibn Abi Talib was carrying 70 people as well as family and followers.

Since then his descendants developed to become the largest tribes in the Hadramaut, and from the city of Hadramout is the main origin of the various colonies of Arabs who settled and mixed nationality in Indonesia and other Asian countries. Besides in Indonesia, this Hadramaut residents are also found in Oman, India, Pakistan, South Philippines, Malaysia, and Singapore.

There is also a citizen of Arab descent who came from Middle Eastern countries and other African in Indonesia, for example from Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Sudan or Morocco: but fewer in number than those from Hadramaut.

Developments in Indonesia

The arrival of Arabs from Hadramaut colony into Indonesia is estimated to occur in three main waves.

9 -11 century AD
The oldest historical records is the establishment of the kingdom Perlak I (East Aceh) on 1 Muharram 225 AH (840 AD). Only two centuries after the death of the Prophet, one of the descendants of Sayyid Ali bin Muhammad bin Ja'far Sadiq Dibaj moved to the royal Perlak. He then married the younger brother of King Perlak Syahir Nuwi. From this marriage was born as the Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah (Raja Islam) Perlak I. The historical record is officially owned by the East Aceh District Council of Ulama and strengthened in the seminar as a paper 'History Log and the Growth of Islam in Aceh' July 10, 1978 by (late) Professor Ali Hasymi.

12-15 century AD
This period is the time of arrival of the progenitor of Walisongo pioneered by Sheikh Jamaluddin Akbar large family of Gujarat, Shaykh Muhammad's descendants still shahib Mirbath of Hadramaut. He preached besama sons away to all corners of Southeast Asia to the archipelago with the main strategy of spreading Islam through marriage with local people mainly from the Hindu palaces.

17-19 century AD
This century is marked by the last wave of mass migration of Hadramaut Alawiyyin who spread Islam while trading in the archipelago. Recent immigrants can be characterized his descendants until now because unlike its predecessor, not a lot of intermarrying with the indigenous population. Moreover, it can be marked with the clan that we know today as Alatas, Assegaf, Al Jufri, Alaydrus, Shihab, Syahab, etc.. This is understandable because these new clans formed later. Recorded in the history of Hadramawt, the oldest clan is ace Saqqaf (Assegaf) which became the title of Sheikh Abdurrahman bin Mohammed Al Mauladdawilah after he died in 731 H or 14-15 century AD While the other clans are formed even more recently, generally in the 16th century. Usually surnames taken from the title of a local cleric who is highly respected. Based on 1366 estimates H (or about 57 years ago), their numbers are now not less than 70 thousand inhabitants. It consists of approximately 200 genera.

Currently an estimated number of Arab descent in Indonesia Hadramaut greater when compared with their numbers in place of his own ancestors. Population Hadramaut itself is only about 1.8 million inhabitants. Even a number of genera that are extinct in Hadramaut itself - such as Basyeiban and Haneman - in Indonesia are still quite a lot.

Many Arab villages are scattered in various cities in Indonesia, for example in Jakarta (Pekojan), Bogor (Pond), Surakarta (Market Kliwon), Surabaya (Ampel), Gresik (gate), Malang (Jagalan), Cirebon (Kauman), Mojokerto ( Kauman), Yogyakarta (Kauman), Probolinggo (Diponegoro), Bondowoso, and Banjarmasin (Kampung Arab), and many more are scattered in other cities such as Palembang, Banda Aceh, Sigli, Medan, Lampung, Makasar, Gorontalo, Ambon , Mataram, Ampenan, Sumbawa, Dompu, Bima, Kupang, and Papua.

Hadramaut Arab descent in Indonesia, such as his home country of Yemen, comprising two major groups namely Alawi groups, and groups Qabili. In Indonesia, there is sometimes a difference between groups that generally adherents Alawiyyin organization Jamiat al-Kheir, with the Sheikh or Masyaikh also commonly called Irsyadi or followers of al-Ershad organization.

Character and Role

Head of the Arab community in Tegal, Central Java, the beginning of the 20th century.
In Indonesia, since time immemorial have been many people of Arab descent who became fighters, Islamic religious scholars and preachers. Among the prominent propagator of religion who is Walisongo, which is strongly suspected (Van Den Berg, 1886) is of Arab descent Hadramaut and / or are their disciples. Hadramaut Arabs who came around the 15th century and earlier have a fundamental difference with those who come on the next wave (18th century and thereafter). As mentioned by Van Den Berg, the predecessor of many assimilated with the native population, mainly from the Hindu royal family. This is done in order to accelerate the spread of Islam, so that their offspring are almost unrecognizable as the Hadramaut Arab descent.

Among the clans of the first Hadramawt to Indonesia is Basyaiban family, namely Syed Abdul Rahman bin Abu Hafs Umar Basyaiban BaAlawi in the 17th century AD.

In the glory days of Islamic sultanates in Indonesia, some Arab descent dirajakan by local communities, among others, in Java (Demak, Cirebon and Banten), Sumatra (Aceh and Siak), and Kalimantan (Sambas, Pontianak, Kubu, and Sand) . In addition, since the longer the lot of Arab descent who became merchants, and they are scattered in various parts of the Indonesian archipelago.

Hadramaut Arabs who came in the 18th century and afterward, not a lot of marriages with the natives as the previous wave arrival. They come already carry the name of clans that formed later (around age 16-17). Descendants of Arabs who came lately Hadramaut, still easily recognizable by distinctive names of their clans. Arab-Indonesia until now participate wholeheartedly in the religious field of Islam and many other areas of life in Indonesia.

1 comment:

syafiie said...

an interesting story of culture.. thanks for spreading your knowledge about islamic spread in indonesia...

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