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HISTORY OF CULTURE | THE BALI KINGDOM  | The first inhabitants of the island of Bali is expected to come in 3000-2500 BCE who migrated from Asia Remains of stone tools from this period found in the village Cekik located in the western part of the island. Prehistoric times and then ended with the arrival of Hinduism and Sanskrit writings from India in 100 BC
Balinese culture and then got a strong influence of Indian culture, the process is more rapid after the 1st century AD. Name Balidwipa (island) began to be found in various inscriptions, including inscriptions Blanjong issued by Sri Kesari Warmadewa in 913 AD and mentions the word Walidwipa. It is estimated that around this time that Subak irrigation system for cultivation of rice began to be developed. Some religious and cultural traditions also began to develop at that time. Kingdom of Majapahit (1293-1500 AD) who are Hindu, and centered on the island of Java, had founded the kingdom of subordinates in Bali around the year 1343 AD It was almost the entire archipelago are Hindus, but as the coming of Islam stood the Islamic kingdoms in the archipelago, among others, led to the collapse of Majapahit. Many of the nobility, clergy, artists, and other Hindu community when it withdrew from the island of Java to Bali.

The Europeans who first discovered Bali is Cornelis de Houtman from the Netherlands in 1597, though a Portuguese ship had previously been stranded near Cape Mount, Jimbaran, in 1585. Netherlands through the VOC began to implement land occupation in Bali, but continue to get resistance, so until the end of the power of their position in Bali is not as solid as their position in the Java or the Moluccas. Starting from the northern region of Bali, since the 1840s the Netherlands has become a permanent presence, which was originally done by pitting the various rulers of Bali-sheep are not mutually trust each other. Dutch major attack by sea and land against the Sanur area, and followed by the Denpasar area. Bali party who lost in numbers and weaponry do not want to experience shame to give up, thus causing the war to the death or bellows, which involves all the people both men and women, including a king. An estimated 4,000 people were killed in the incident, although the Netherlands has ordered them to surrender. Furthermore, the Dutch governors who ruled only a few influences on the island, so that local control of religion and culture generally unchanged.

Japan occupied Bali during World War II, and then a military officer named I Gusti Ngurah Rai Bali forming forces 'freedom fighters'. Following Japan's surrender in the Pacific in August 1945, the Dutch promptly returned to Indonesia (including Bali) to re-establish its colonial rule as a state before the war. This was opposed by the forces of resistance Bali who was using Japanese weapons.

On 20 November 1940, fighting broke out Puputan Margarana that occurred in the village of Marga, Tabanan, Bali middle. Colonel I Gusti Ngurah Rai, who was 29 years old, led his army from the territory east of Bali to carry out attacks to death on the Dutch troops are armed to the teeth. All members of the Balinese battalion was killed everything, and make it as the last Balinese military resistance.

In 1946 the Dutch made Bali as one of 13 areas part of the new State of East Indonesia was proclaimed, named as one of the rivals for the Republic of Indonesia which was proclaimed and headed by Sukarno and Hatta. Bali then also incorporated into the United States of Indonesia when the Dutch recognized the independence of Indonesia on December 29, 1949. In 1950 Bali officially leave perserikatannya with the Dutch and legally became a province of the Republic of Indonesia.

The eruption of Mount Agung in 1963, had shaken the people's economy and caused many of the Balinese transmigrated to other areas in Indonesia.

In 1965, along with the failure by the G30S coup against the national government in Jakarta, Bali and many other areas there was a crackdown against members and sympathizers of the Communist Party of Indonesia. In Bali, it is estimated more than 100,000 people were killed or disappeared. Nevertheless, the events in the early days of New Order is up to now has not managed to be disclosed by law.

Bali is known as the "Island of the Gods" in the days prior to arrival majapahit when there is a kingdom that first appeared on Bali which is about 914 M which is known from an inscription found in a village near Sanur blanjong which has a beach sunrise. The inscription dates to 836 saka which mentions the name of king "Khesari Warmadewa" has the palace that is in Singhadwala. 

Khesari Warmadewa is Ugrasena in the year 915 AD - 942 AD After he died, Abu from the bodies of the king Ugrasena dicandikan at Air Madatu, then was replaced by the crown Jayasingha Warmadewa (960 AD - 975 AD). It is said that the king Jayasingha build two baths in the village Manukraya, now located near the palace of the country Tread Siring. 

 King Jayasingha Warmadewa replaced by King Jayasadhu Warmadewa (975 AD - 983 AD), after which it died was replaced by a queen named Sri Maharaja of Srivijaya Goddess (983 AD - 989 AD). Then replaced by Dharmodayana (989 AD - 1011 AD) which is also called King Udayana. King Udayana married alias Gunapriayadharmapatni Mahendradatta of royal Medang Kemulan eastern Java and the marriage produced three children, namely: Airlangga, Marakata, and Children Wungsu. Later married the daughter of King Airlangga Dharmawangsa (king of eastern Java). 

King of King Udayana Marakata replaced because Airlangga in eastern Java. Udayana king died and the ashes were in candikan in Banu WKA. Marakata given the title Dharmawangsa Wardana Marakatta Pangkajasthana Uttunggadewa who ruled in Bali from 1011 to 1022. Later replaced by the child Wungsu (1049 - 1077) who ruled for 28 years and said the country during his reign the state securely. 

Wungsu child has no offspring and died in 1077 and in dharmakan in Gunung Kawi near Tread Siring. After Children Wungsu died, the state remains the kingdom in Bali to make contact with the kings of Java and Bali are told of a king who was named King Bedahulu or who are familiar with the name Mayadenawa which has a very powerful duke named Ki Kebo Iwa. The arrival of the kingdom of Gadjah Mada majapahit to Bali is like to conquer Bali under the leadership of the Kingdom of Majapahit, but not being able to duke it invites Majapahit Ki Kebo Iwa to Java and there was told to make a well and after the wells were completed Ki Kebo Iwa in the tomb alive with soil and rock, but in the palm of Bali Ki Kebo Iwa can not be killed with the easy way like that. Soil and stones being thrown into the well behind the thrown upward. In the end he gave himself until he gave up himself to be killed before she could be killed. 

After the death of Ki Kebo Iwa, Bali can be conquered by the Gadjah Mada University in 1343. Having conquered the kingdom of Majapahit Bali, Bali's most ancient inhabitants fled to the mountains which was then called the resident "Bali Aga". Now that their existence can be found in areas such as Bali in the village of Tenganan (Kab. Karangasem), tengangan pengringsingan (Kab. Buleleng) and many others, they have their own distinctive traditional dress which the material and its shape is slightly different from Bali in traditional clothing generally.

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