Recent Articles

Harjuna Wijaya - Bedhaya Dance

HISTORY OF CULTURE | Harjuna Wijaya - Bedhaya Dance | Scared, quiet and magical covered Bangsal Kencono. When the gamelan hitter playing slowly “Gending Ladrang Prabu Anom”, where accompanied the nine princes dancer who walked into the Bangsal Kencono wings no less then slow.  In the swaying of the dancers began to crouch into position to worship, respect the human symbol of God as Creator and make jengkeng worship to Sultan as the palace ruler.

History of Batik in Indonesia

History of Batik in Indonesia | HISTORY OF CULTURE | Art coloring coloring fabric with prevention techniques using night is one of the ancient art form. The discovery in Egypt show that this technique has been known since the 4th century BC, with the discovery mummy wrapping cloth which is also coated the night to form a pattern. In Asia, a similar technique of batik is also applied in China during the T'ang Dynasty (618-907) as well as in India and Japan during the Nara period (645-794).

Origin Of The Archipelago Nation

HISTORY OF CULTURE | Origin Of The Archipelago Nation  | If you look at evolutionary tree of Human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups, Noah's family thought the U.S. comes from IJK haplogroup, which is the base of the branching descendants of Shem son of Noah (haplogroup IJ) and Japheth son of Noah (haplogroup K). Thus the descendants of Prophet Adam who survived the flood of Noah, derived from eight communities, namely haplogroup A, B, C, D, E, G, H and IJK.


HISTORY OF CULTURE | THE BALI KINGDOM  | The first inhabitants of the island of Bali is expected to come in 3000-2500 BCE who migrated from Asia Remains of stone tools from this period found in the village Cekik located in the western part of the island. Prehistoric times and then ended with the arrival of Hinduism and Sanskrit writings from India in 100 BC


HISTORY OF CULTURE | THE INDONESIAN TRADITION PRAAKSARA  | Aksara is an ancient writings that provide the knowledge for the Indonesian people in history.And always be memorable as the ancestral human pre-history in Indonesia.


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HISTORY OF CULTURE | THE STORY OF MATARAM KINGDOM | Mataram kingdom in Central Java with its core area called Mataram Bhumi. The area is surrounded by mountains and hills, such as Serayu Mountains, Mount Prau, Mount Sindoro, Mountain Cleft, Mount Ungaran, Merbabu, Mount Merapi, Kendang Mountains, Mount Lawu, Mount Sewu, Gunung Kidul. The area is also drained many rivers, including River Bogowonto, the Progo River, River Elo, and the largest dalah Solo River. The main livelihood of the people of the Ancient Mataram is agriculture, while trade issues received less attention.

Beginning of Regional History Lombok

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HISTORY OF CULTURE | Beginning of Regional History Lombok | History of the land of Lombok is unclear because until now there is no data from experts and evidence which could support about the pre history of this land of Lombok.


HISTORY OF CULTURE | SELAYAR ISLAND | That afternoon was graced with clear skies without a single cloud. The seas were at low tide and we strolled the beach, stumbling occasionally accross unique sea creatures. The skies turned crimson at 6 PM with the sun setting between the tree tops at the isthmus. In a brief moment, stars glittering across the night skies. The libra constellation formed a square like a kite without strings gliding across the firmament. The pounding of waves and the silence of the night turns into Bira Beach’s signature feature.


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HISTORY OF CULTURE | THE STORY OF RAMAYANA | Narrated in a land called nan Mantili there was a beautiful princess named Dewi Shinta. She was a daughter of the king of King Janaka Mantili. One day the King held a contest to get the Prince for his beloved daughter is Shinta, and finally the competition was won by Crown Prince Kingdom of Ayodhya, Rama, Raden Wijaya. But in this story there is also a king Alengkadiraja King Ravana, who also was in love, but not to the Dewi Shinta Dewi but he wanted to marry Widowati.


HISTORY OF CULTURE | PALEMBANG DARUSSALAM SULTANATE (1550 - 1823) | The history of the Sultanate of Palembang to begin in mid-15th century in his lifetime a character named Ario Dillah or Ario Damar. He is a son of the last king of Majapahit, which represents the title of Duke of Majapahit kingdom Ario Damar in power between the years 1455-1486 in Palembang Lamo, who now is located in an area of ilir. On arrival Ario Damar to Palembang, Palembang residents and had a lot of people who converted to Islam and the Duke Ario Damar was probably later converts to Islam, said his name changed to Ario Ario Abdillah or Dillah (In the Java language = dillah = amber lights).

Transfortatioan In The Ancient Times

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HISTORY OF CULTURE | Transfortatioan In The Ancient Times | Means of transportation in ancient times are still very simple. On the river, lake or sea used boats in various sizes and models, made of bamboo and wood materials, etc., transportation on land use elephants, camels, horses, donkeys, cows and buffalo, either directly or by pulling a train of vehicles, cart or the like. 


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HISTORY OF CULTURE | INDONESIA KINGDOM IS NOT YOU KNOW | Indonesia is full of diverse arts, culture, and tourism as well as providing natural beauty, and to date there are still some things that in the case sustainability. Manypeople who do not really know about it, if you know the oldest kingdoms in Indonesia? only Kutai kingdom, Sriwijaya, Mataram and Majapahit Kingdom. there are other kingdoms unknown. these kingdoms are:


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HISTORY OF CULTURE | CAVE PAINTINGS MALUKU | Cave painting in Indonesia known to develop during the hunting and gathering food advanced (Kosasih, 1983). According H.R. Van Hekeren (1972 in Permana, 2008) likely to cave in South Sulawesi's life lasted for thousands of years BC. Cave painting in Indonesia spread over the area of ??South Sulawesi, Maluku Islands, Papua, and Kalimantan.

The Entry of Chinese People (Tionghoa)

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HISTORY OF CULTURE | The Entry of Chinese People (Tionghoa) | Some of the oldest records written by the clergy, such as Fa Hien in the 4th century and the I Ching in the 7th century. Fa Hien reported a kingdom in Java ("To lo mo") and the I Ching would like to come to India to study Buddhism and stop in the archipelago to study Sanskrit in advance. In Java he sit under a man named Jñânabhadra.

The Occurrence of Indo-European Community

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HISTORY OF CULTURE | The Occurrence of Indo-European Community | Person or the Indo (abbreviation of the name in Dutch, Indo-Europeaan, "Europe-East Indies") is the ethnic group that exists (or ever existed) in Hindia-Belanda/Indonesia and has now become the largest minority ethnic group in the Netherlands . These ethnic groups are characterized from a common racial origin, legal status, and cultural.



HISTORY OF CULTURE | WONG OSING TRIBE | Using Spare history begins at the end of the Majapahit rule around the year 1478 AD Civil war and the growth of Islamic kingdoms in particular accelerate the fall of the Majapahit Empire of Malacca. After his downfall, majapahit people to flee to some place, ie the slopes of Mount Bromo (Tengger Tribe), Blambangan (Using Tribe) and Bali. The closeness of this history is seen from the pattern of life which still implies Tribe Using Majapahit culture. Blambangan kingdom, which was founded by community Osing, is the last kingdom patterned like the Hindu-Buddhist kingdom of Majapahit. They strongly believe that even the National Park Alas Purwo is the last stop where the people who shy away from the rush of the Majapahit kingdom of Mataram.

In the history of Islamic Mataram kingdom was never plugged his reign over the Kingdom Blambangan, it is this which causes people Using culture has significant differences compared to the Javanese. Using the tribe has a large enough proximity with the Balinese, it is very terluhat Gandrung of traditional art that has similarities with traditional Balinese dances, including dances and clothing are also musical instruments. Another similarity is reflected in the architecture of the building between the Tribe and Tribal Using Bali which have many similarities, especially in the decorations on the roof bangunan.Puputan is the last war until blood efflux as a last attempt to defend themselves against enemy attack larger and stronger. This tradition has been sparked great battle called Bayu Puputan in 1771 AD WAR HISTORY BAYU are rare in the history of exposure by the media so it's like drowning.

In subsequent developments, after officials managed to move to Bali Majapahit and building the kingdom there, Blambangan, politically and culturally, to be part of Bali or, as termed by some historians, "under the protection of Bali". However, in the year 1639, the kingdom of Mataram in Central Java Blambangan conquer the assistance that is not even got a bit of Bali claiming heavy casualties; Blambangan not a few people were killed and discarded (Gde Haal, as quoted by Anderson, 1982; 75). In the power of this population Blambangan Mataram began Islamised, a lot of influence cultural development in the future in shaping the social structure and culture. Scramble Blambangan by Mataram and Bali continue and take turns until the end when the master had occupied Blambangan VOC in 1765.

Blambangan seem relatively less to show its strength, in the Dutch colonial period, he actually shows his perseverance against the dominance of VOCs. Battle after battle occurred between the people against the colonial Dutch Balambangan. Until finally culminating in a major war in the year 1771-1772 under the leadership of Mas Rempeg or Prince Jagapati known as Bayu Puputan war. This war has ravaged the people succeeded Balambangan and leaving only about 8,000 people (Ali, 1993:20). However, it seems people remain unyielding Balambangan. The wars of resistance, although smaller, continues to occur until decades later (1810), led by Bayu troops remaining, ie those who by the Dutch dubbed the 'people Bayu wild' (Lekkerker, 1926:401 - 402; Ali, 1997:9). Once you can destroy the fort Bayu, the Dutch government to concentrate in Banyuwangi and raised Mas Alit as the first regent of Banyuwangi.

Blambangan was never separated from the occupation and colonization outside parties, and in 1765 no less than 60,000 fighters were killed or missing Blambangan to defend its territory (Epp, 1849:247). Anderson (1982:75-76) describes that how the Dutch do not bertara cruelty while mastering Blambangan especially in the years 1767-1781. With reference to written records of Bondowoso Bosch, Anderson said: "This is probably the only one in the whole of Java that had once been densely populated which completely destroyed ...". 

Occupation and conquest that repeatedly turned out to actually make people more patriotic Blambangan resistance and have a very strong spirit. Cortesao, as quoted by Herusantosa (1987:13), referring to Tome Pires, called "the people Blambangan as people who have the nature of" warlike ", warlike, and always ready for combat, always wanted and tried to liberate their territories from other parties of power" . Scholte (1927:146) states: 

"History Balambangan very sad. Blambangan tribes continued to decrease since been killed by the forces of successive hit the area, such as the power of Mataram, Balinese, Bugis and Makassar, the robbers China, and finally VOCs. But the spirit of the people Blambangan never completely extinguished, and his descendants are now a nation of gallant tribe physical and personality as well as growing rapidly, hold fast to tradition, but also easy to accept the new civilization ". People Blambangan, such as those mentioned in various sources above, that which has been declared as a forerunner of Using wong or wong Blambangan remnants.


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HISTORY OF CULTURE | THE EMERGENCE OF ARAB TRIBE - INDONESIA | Arab tribes-Indonesia is Indonesia which has a population of ethnic Arabs and ethnic descendants of native Indonesia. At first they generally live in Arab settlements are scattered in various cities in Indonesia. The Dutch colonial times, they are regarded as foreign Asian nation along with the ethnic Chinese-Indonesian and Indonesian-Indian tribes. But as the ethnic Chinese and Indians, not a few of the Arab-Indonesia to help Indonesia's independence struggle.

History of arrival

In the aftermath of a major schism among Muslims that led to the killing of the fourth Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib, begin to occur displacement (hijra) from the massive descendants across the world. When Imam Ahmad Al-Muhajir migrated from Iraq to the Hadramaut region in Yemen about a thousand years ago, the descendants of Ali ibn Abi Talib was carrying 70 people as well as family and followers.

Since then his descendants developed to become the largest tribes in the Hadramaut, and from the city of Hadramout is the main origin of the various colonies of Arabs who settled and mixed nationality in Indonesia and other Asian countries. Besides in Indonesia, this Hadramaut residents are also found in Oman, India, Pakistan, South Philippines, Malaysia, and Singapore.

There is also a citizen of Arab descent who came from Middle Eastern countries and other African in Indonesia, for example from Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Sudan or Morocco: but fewer in number than those from Hadramaut.

Developments in Indonesia

The arrival of Arabs from Hadramaut colony into Indonesia is estimated to occur in three main waves.

9 -11 century AD
The oldest historical records is the establishment of the kingdom Perlak I (East Aceh) on 1 Muharram 225 AH (840 AD). Only two centuries after the death of the Prophet, one of the descendants of Sayyid Ali bin Muhammad bin Ja'far Sadiq Dibaj moved to the royal Perlak. He then married the younger brother of King Perlak Syahir Nuwi. From this marriage was born as the Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah (Raja Islam) Perlak I. The historical record is officially owned by the East Aceh District Council of Ulama and strengthened in the seminar as a paper 'History Log and the Growth of Islam in Aceh' July 10, 1978 by (late) Professor Ali Hasymi.

12-15 century AD
This period is the time of arrival of the progenitor of Walisongo pioneered by Sheikh Jamaluddin Akbar large family of Gujarat, Shaykh Muhammad's descendants still shahib Mirbath of Hadramaut. He preached besama sons away to all corners of Southeast Asia to the archipelago with the main strategy of spreading Islam through marriage with local people mainly from the Hindu palaces.

17-19 century AD
This century is marked by the last wave of mass migration of Hadramaut Alawiyyin who spread Islam while trading in the archipelago. Recent immigrants can be characterized his descendants until now because unlike its predecessor, not a lot of intermarrying with the indigenous population. Moreover, it can be marked with the clan that we know today as Alatas, Assegaf, Al Jufri, Alaydrus, Shihab, Syahab, etc.. This is understandable because these new clans formed later. Recorded in the history of Hadramawt, the oldest clan is ace Saqqaf (Assegaf) which became the title of Sheikh Abdurrahman bin Mohammed Al Mauladdawilah after he died in 731 H or 14-15 century AD While the other clans are formed even more recently, generally in the 16th century. Usually surnames taken from the title of a local cleric who is highly respected. Based on 1366 estimates H (or about 57 years ago), their numbers are now not less than 70 thousand inhabitants. It consists of approximately 200 genera.

Currently an estimated number of Arab descent in Indonesia Hadramaut greater when compared with their numbers in place of his own ancestors. Population Hadramaut itself is only about 1.8 million inhabitants. Even a number of genera that are extinct in Hadramaut itself - such as Basyeiban and Haneman - in Indonesia are still quite a lot.

Many Arab villages are scattered in various cities in Indonesia, for example in Jakarta (Pekojan), Bogor (Pond), Surakarta (Market Kliwon), Surabaya (Ampel), Gresik (gate), Malang (Jagalan), Cirebon (Kauman), Mojokerto ( Kauman), Yogyakarta (Kauman), Probolinggo (Diponegoro), Bondowoso, and Banjarmasin (Kampung Arab), and many more are scattered in other cities such as Palembang, Banda Aceh, Sigli, Medan, Lampung, Makasar, Gorontalo, Ambon , Mataram, Ampenan, Sumbawa, Dompu, Bima, Kupang, and Papua.

Hadramaut Arab descent in Indonesia, such as his home country of Yemen, comprising two major groups namely Alawi groups, and groups Qabili. In Indonesia, there is sometimes a difference between groups that generally adherents Alawiyyin organization Jamiat al-Kheir, with the Sheikh or Masyaikh also commonly called Irsyadi or followers of al-Ershad organization.

Character and Role

Head of the Arab community in Tegal, Central Java, the beginning of the 20th century.
In Indonesia, since time immemorial have been many people of Arab descent who became fighters, Islamic religious scholars and preachers. Among the prominent propagator of religion who is Walisongo, which is strongly suspected (Van Den Berg, 1886) is of Arab descent Hadramaut and / or are their disciples. Hadramaut Arabs who came around the 15th century and earlier have a fundamental difference with those who come on the next wave (18th century and thereafter). As mentioned by Van Den Berg, the predecessor of many assimilated with the native population, mainly from the Hindu royal family. This is done in order to accelerate the spread of Islam, so that their offspring are almost unrecognizable as the Hadramaut Arab descent.

Among the clans of the first Hadramawt to Indonesia is Basyaiban family, namely Syed Abdul Rahman bin Abu Hafs Umar Basyaiban BaAlawi in the 17th century AD.

In the glory days of Islamic sultanates in Indonesia, some Arab descent dirajakan by local communities, among others, in Java (Demak, Cirebon and Banten), Sumatra (Aceh and Siak), and Kalimantan (Sambas, Pontianak, Kubu, and Sand) . In addition, since the longer the lot of Arab descent who became merchants, and they are scattered in various parts of the Indonesian archipelago.

Hadramaut Arabs who came in the 18th century and afterward, not a lot of marriages with the natives as the previous wave arrival. They come already carry the name of clans that formed later (around age 16-17). Descendants of Arabs who came lately Hadramaut, still easily recognizable by distinctive names of their clans. Arab-Indonesia until now participate wholeheartedly in the religious field of Islam and many other areas of life in Indonesia.

Trust Differences Hindu - Buddhist

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A. Hinduism - Buddism

HISTORY OF CULTURE | Trust Differences Hinduism - Buddhist | Hinduism developed in India in the year 1500SM ±. Source of Hindu teachings contained in the Vedas kitabsucinya. Vedas consist of four Samhitaatau "set", namely:
  1. Reg Vedas, contains poems of praise to paradewa. 
  2. Sama Vedas, containing the sacred songs. 
  3. Yajur Vedas, containing the ritual incantations to safety. 
  4. Atharwa Vedas, contains prayers for healing diseases. 
In addition to the Vedas, Hindus also have other holy books, namely: 
  1. Kitab Brahmin, contains teachings about the halsesaji. 
  2. Kitab Upanishads, containing the teachings of the divine and the meaning of life. 
Hinduism embraced polytheism (worship of many gods), of which Trimurti or the "Unity of Three Supreme Deity" namely: 
  • Dewa Brahmin, as a creator god. 
  • Dewa Vishnu, the god of danpelindung keepers. 
  • Dewa Shiva, the god of destruction. 
Trimurti Gods addition, there is also the god who banyakdipuja the rain god Indra carrier is very important for agriculture, as well as the god Agni (fire) which is useful for cooking and religious ceremonies. According to Hindu society is divided into four levels or castes, called Chess colors are: 
  1. Kasta Brahmin, composed of the ministers. 
  2. Kasta Knights, composed of the king, the royal family, danbangsawan. 
  3. Kasta Vaishya, composed of merchants, danburuh medium. 
  4. Kasta Sudra, composed of farmers, small labor and slaves. 
In addition to these four castes there are also classes pharia or candala, that is, those outside the caste who have violated the rules of the Hindus kasta.Orang choose a place that is sacred for example, Benares as a place of Lord Shiva and bersemayamnya Ganggayang River water can purify the sins of Hindus , so that it can reach the top of nirvana. 


Buddhism taught by Gautama Siddharta ± diIndia in the year 531 BC. His father was a king named Maya Sudhodana and mother goddess. Buddha means one who was conscious and wanted melepaskandiri of the Buddhist holy samsara.Kitab Tripittaka means "TigaKeranjang" written in Poly. There is a Three beholdeth Basket is: 
  • Winayapittaka: Contains the rules and laws that must be run by Buddhists. 
  • Sutrantapittaka: Contains discourses or teachings of the Buddha. 
  • Abhidarmapittaka: Contains an explanation of matters required to implement the Tri keagamaan.Pemeluk Buddha Dharma or the "Lord's Day Three" are: 
1. Buddha that is devoted to the Buddha. 
2. Dharma that is devoted to the teachings of Buddha. 
3. Sangga that is devoted to people-Buddhists. 

Besides, for people to achieve nirvana should follow the 8 (eight) the path of righteousness or Astavidha namely: 
1.Pandangan correct. 
2.Niat correct. 
3.Perkataan correct. 
4.Perbuatan correct. 
5.Penghidupan correct. 
6.Usaha correct. 
7.Perhatian correct. 
8.Bersemedi correct. 

Since the emergence of different interpretations of ajaranBuddha, eventually growing the two streams of Buddhism, namely: 
  1. Buddha Hinayana, which everyone can reach nirvana on their own efforts. 
  2. Buddha Mahayana, which one can reach nirvana with the joint efforts and mutual assistance. 
Buddhists also have places that are considered holy and sacred, namely: 
1. Kapilawastu, which is the birthplace of the Buddha. 
2. Bodh style, that is where the Buddha meditated and gained Bodhi. 
3. Sarnath / Benares, where the Buddha first taught the doctrine. 
4. Kusinagara, where the death of the Buddha. 

B. Hindu Buddhist influence in Indonesia 
The influence of Hindu-Buddhist cultural elements from India has been changing and adding cultural treasures Indonesia in several aspects of the future. 
The spread of religion and Hindu-Buddhist culture in Indonesia widely influential in the life of Indonesian society, including in the following areas: 

Indonesia the nation began to embrace religion Hindudan Buddhist beliefs, although not abandon its original, like the cult of ancestral spirits. 

In the social field, there was a change in the order of social life. For example in Hindu society introduced the caste system. 

In the economic field, not so much influence and change, because the Indonesian people have known economic activity through shipping and trade long before the influx of Hindu-Buddhist influences. 

Hindu-Buddhist cultural influence can be seen from the results of culture such as building temples, art literature, in the form of the epic stories such as the Epic Mahabharata and the Ramayana Epic. Another influence is the writing system. Hindu-Buddhist culture introduced a system of writing very instrumental in Indonesian society. 

5. Religion 
When entering the era of history, people in Indonesia has embraced animism and dynamism. People are starting to accept the new belief system, ie Hinduism and Buddhism since interacting with the people of India. The new culture brought changes in religious life, for example in terms of manners, ceremonies of worship, and forms a place of worship. 

6. Government 
System of royal government introduced olehorang Indians. In this system of small groups of people united by the possession of a large area. Chiefs of the best and strongest power in the kingdom is entitled to. Therefore, the kingdoms were born, such as Kutai, Tarumanegara, and Sriwijaya. 

7. Architecture 
One tradition is the building punden megalithic staircase steps. Tradition is combined with a culture that inspires Indian temple building construction. If we look at the Borobudur Temple, it would seem that building a pyramid-shaped staircase steps. It inimenjadi evidence of an India-Indonesia cultural blend. 

8. Language 
Kingdoms of the Hindu-Buddhist in Indonesia to leave some of the most lettered inscriptions and language Sanskerta.Dalam Pallawa further developments even today, the Indonesian language to enrich themselves with the Sanskrit language. Sentences or words of Indonesian language is the result of uptake from the Sanskrit, the Pancasila, Dharma Dasa, Kartika Eka Paksi, Parasamya Purnakarya Nugraha, and so on. 

9. Literature 
The growing Indian influence in Indonesia brought major advances in the field of literary sastra.Karya they bring is the book of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. The existence of these books to spur the poets Indonesia 

Wakatobi National Park - East Sulawesi

HISTORY OF CULTURE | Wakatobi National Park - East Sulawesi | Marine waters of eastern Indonesia today is still the world's best coral triangle.One is the Wakatobi National Park in Buton regency, Southeast Sulawesi. In the region, algae, shrimp, and plankton are abundant. When on land apply the adage, "where there is sugar, there's ants," then prevailing in the sea is "plankton where there is, there will gather a lot of fish".

It is not surprising that the area be the location of "favorite" in search of some fish species feed. One type of fish that frequent travel to Wakatobi is the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus). The giant mammals are known to move around the place while looking for food, between the Indian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean.Perhaps because of his large size, the pope took the feed in large numbers anyway.
Typically, a herd of sperm whales in the Wakatobi in November, while the other hemisphere frozen. In the month of Wakatobi relatively warmer waters and abundant food that could satiate the stomach herd of whales. At that moment, the sea monster assembled. Why is it called the sea monster? Because the sperm whale with characteristics similar to sperm-shaped white dots on the head was included in the order Cetacea, which in Greek means the sea monster.

In addition to sperm whales, the waters of Wakatobi is also inhabited by other sea monsters. For example, stingrays Manta (Manta ray) are classified as body size and shape of a giant sea monster. Manta rays are one type of fish that distinctive and unique, which is only found in tropical waters.

According to the results of scientific surveys FDC-IPB in 1994, Wakatobi archipelago is one of the best diving in Indonesia with a diversity of coral reefs and fish are high. On that basis, through the Minister of Forestry No.393/Kpts-V/1996, Wakatobi island designated as national parks. Therefore, be Wakatobi as a nature conservation area which has a native ecosystem, managed by the zoning system is utilized for the purpose of research, science, education, culture, tourism, and recreation (Article 14 of Law No. 1 point. 5 of 1990).

Concerning marine biodiversity, scale and condition of coral, Wakatobi occupies one of the positions of the highest priorities for marine conservation in Indonesia.It is also an important part in a network that meets each of Marine Protected Areas along the coast of southeast Sulawesi. With a total area reached 1.39 million hectares, this park includes the islands-scented fragrance, Kaledupa, Tomia, and Binongko.

Wakatobi National Park has the potential of marine natural resources that both types of high value and uniqueness, with amazing underwater panorama. In general, the waters of the sea has a configuration of the starting flat to sloping towards the sea, and in some areas there is a rugged steep waters. Varying water depths. The deepest reaches 1044 meters with most of the sandy bottom and rocky.

Wakatobi has 25 pieces of coral reef with a circumference of the coast of the islands along the 600 km. More than 112 coral species from 13 families in whom Acropora formosa, A. hyacinthus, Psammocora profundasafla, Pavona cactus, Leptoseris yabei, Fungia molucensis, Lobophyllia robusta, Merulina ampliata, Platygyra versifora, Euphyllia glabrescens, Tubastraea frondes, Stylophora pistillata, throchelliophorum Sarcophyton, and Sinularia spp.

According to official sources in the Ministry of Forestry, Wakatobi least inhabited by 93 species of food fish and ornamental fish trade, among other spots argus (Cephalopholus argus), takhasang (naso unicornis), pogo-pogo (Balistoides viridescens), napoleon (Cheilinus undulatus), fish red (Lutjanus biguttatus), rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus), Amphiprion melanopus, Chaetodon specullum, Chelmon rostratus, Heniochus acuminatus, Lutjanus monostigma, Caesio caerularea, and others.

In addition there are several species of sea birds such as goose-stone brown (Sula leucogaster plotus), kettle melayu (Charadrius peronii), erasia kingfisher (Alcedo atthis), also there are three types of turtles that often landed on islands in the Park is hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata), turtle jar (Caretta Caretta), and fission turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea).

The indigenous people who live around this park is a sea or a tribe called the Bajau tribe. According to ancient Chinese and European explorers, boating humans are capable of exploring the Islands Merqui, Johor, Singapore, Sulawesi and the Sulu archipelago. From the overall boating humans in Southeast Asia that still have a boating culture is traditional Bajau tribe. Their daily life is quite unique and interesting, especially their ability to dive to the bottom of the ocean without diving equipment and tools to spear fish.

Hoga Island (Resort Kaledupa), Binongko Island (Resort Binongko), and Resort Tamia, is an attractive location to visit, especially for diving, snor- rivet, marine tours, swimming, camping, and cultural tourism. The best season to visit this island was in April s / d in June and October / December each year.

To reach the site, visitors can depart from Kendari to smells with fast boats that operate regular twice daily, with a long trip or five hours every day with a wooden boat for 12 hours. From smells to Lasalimu visitors can ride four-wheeled vehicle for two hours, then climb aboard the fast-Wanci Lasalimu for an hour or Lasalimu-Wanci wooden boat for 2.5 hours. Wanci was first enters the gates of Wakatobi National Park area.

Baluran National Park - East Java


HISTORY OF CULTURE | Baluran National Park - East Java | Baluran National Park can be reached from Surabaya, in East Java along the northern coast towards the east, crossing the city: Pasuruan, Probolinggo, Situbondo and after Banyuputih, headed keselatan (do not hold ketimur kedesa room) and before the village Wongsorejo, on S7.921850 - E114. 387 667 turns left toward the Visitor Center (S7.920333 - E114.388017). Visitors must pay an entrance fee of Rp 6,000 .- per car and Rp 2,500 .- per person. There are two places accommodation (guest house) in-Bekol (S7.838217 - E114.439150) and the section on the beach-Bama (S7.844667 - E114.459633).

This was the widest expanse of savanna in the island of Java, make you who visit here feel like in Africa. You will be presented at Baluran natural real amazing when hundreds of deer running towards the pool of water, the male peacock spread its tail to attract the attention of the females, dozens of very large buffalo, several dozen eagles foraging, langurs and macaques. Not to mention the trees that resemble typical Baluran areca nut trees and fruit of a lifetime as much as 1 ton for later died. Pilang a white trunked trees and lush, if you observe carefully the tree-like in the movie "Avatar" and similar trees that shade of banyan Bekol filled with magical nuance. 

Baluran National Park located in District Banyuputih, Situbondo, East Java Province. Northern boundary is the Madura Strait, east of the Strait of Bali, south of the River Bajulmati, and west of the River Klokoran. Air temperature 27 ° - 34 ° C, rainfall 900-1600 mm / year, altitude 0-1247 masl, the geographic location 7 ° 29 '- 7 ° 55' S, 114 ° 17 '- 114 ° 28' E, and extent reached 25,000 ha. In the middle of this area are Mount Baluran who were no longer active.

Baluran National Park is representative of specific dry forest ecosystem on the island of Java, the type of vegetation consists of savannah, mangrove forest, monsoon forest, beach forest, lower montane forests, swamp forest and evergreen forests throughout the year. Approximately 40% of savannah vegetation types dominate Baluran National Park area. Black soil of alluvial and volcanic soils that cover approximately half the area of ​​low land area, overgrown with grass savanna. This area is very fertile region, rich in diversity of food for grazing species. 

Monsoon type of climate is influenced by the east wind dried. Rainfall ranges from 900-1600 mm / year and temperatures between 27 ° - 30 ° C with dry months per year on average 9 months. Between August and December wind was blowing pretty hard from the south. The rainy season in November-April, while the dry season in April-October with the highest rainfall in the month of December to January. But in fact, these estimates often change according to global conditions that affect. 

In the dry season ground water in the soil surface becomes very limited and water supplies in some of these springs to be reduced. In rainy weather, the black soil can be penetrated very little water so that water flowed on the surface of the soil, forming a lot of puddles, especially in the south of the area that connects Talpat with Bama. 

When you come during the rainy season the plants and the water is abundant, so that the occupants of the park such as Bull and Buffalo Wild chose to go into the interior garden of the face to face with the visitors. But some groups of deer, peacock, pheasant and other beburungan can be enjoyed. 

Plants that exist in this park as much as 444 species, of which there are native plants that are distinctive and attractive widoro bukol (Ziziphus rotundifolia), neem (Azadirachta indica), and Pilang (Acacia leucophloea). Widoro bukol, neem, and Pilang is a plant that is able to adapt in a very dry conditions still look green even though other plants have withered and dry. Other plants such as walnut (Aleurites moluccana), gebang (Corypha utan), api-api (Avicennia sp), tamarind (Tamarindus indica), gadung (Dioscorea hispida), kendal (Cordia obliqua), Burn (Syzygium polyanthum), and bulging (Sterculia foetida). 

There are 26 species of mammals in between banteng (Bos javanicus javanicus), wild buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), ajag (Cuon alpinus javanicus), barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak muntjak), deer (Cervus timorensis deer), leopards (Panthera pardus weld), deer (Tragulus pelandoc javanicus), and cat mangrove (Prionailurus viverrinus). Animal bull mascot is typical of Baluran National Park. In addition, there are about 155 species of birds including rare among them like a kite fire (Hirundo Rustica), red jungle fowl (Gallus Gallus), kangkareng (Anthracoceros convecus), hornbill (Buceros rhinoceros), tuwuk or tuwur asia (Eudynamys scolopacea ), peacock (Pavo muticus), and stork barrels (Leptoptilos javanicus). 

There are 155 species of rare birds such as Swallow tail needle (Hirundapus caudutus), Banteng (Bos javanicus), Dhole (Cuon alpinus), Deer (Muntiacus muntjak), Bird peacock (Pavo muticus), forest Chicken (Gallus sp.), Leopards (Felis pardus), mangrove Cat (Felis viverrina) and others.

Carstensz Pyramid - South Papua

HISTORY OF CULTURE | Carstensz Pyramid - South Papua | Carstensz Pyramid, Puncak Jaya called by some, and Puncak Jaya Jaya Kesuma Kesuma or only by others, located to the west of the central plateau called Jayawijaya Mountains and the Sudirman. This is the highest mountain in Australia and Oceania.Technically this means that Carstensz Pyramid is the highest mountain between America and the Himalayas. Illustration map of Glacier. Name Carstensz Pyramid read - Puncak Jaya Kesuma.

"Anyone who has ever seen Carstensz Pyramid miss such a beautiful woman he was flirting. You while remaining mysterious. Occasionally it shows you all the beauty, only to be covered in a veil of mist a minute later. It is provocative but is reached. It makes you miserable and restless, like us "

Officially, he took the name of the inventor - John Carstensz, which is a Dutch sea-farer. In 1623 he brought news to Europe about the rights of mountain snow at the equator, but no one believed him. He was the first European to see the Carstensz Pyramid with his own eyes. 

Indonesian communists called Puncak Jaya (victory peak), although the name is different from that considered to belong to the highest summit (Nga Pulu). Yet another name for Carstensz Pyramid is also often used, is Jaya Kesuma. This name is used in books published by Mapala University. However, today Indonesia using a (somewhat inconsistently) both the name of the mountain - Carstensz Pyramid and Puncak Jaya. 

Sometimes you can run to the misspelled "name" is used when referring to the Carstensz Pyramid, this includes Karstens, Carstens, Carstenz, Carstenzs, Carstesz, Carstes, Carstez, Karstensz, Karstenz, Karstesz, Karstes, Karstez or Pyramid.However, all this is a typo. The only correct name is the Carstensz Pyramid.Sometimes, a second name for Carstensz Puncak Jaya is misspelled and follow the wrong form is used as a substitute: Peak or Peak Jaia Jaja. The most common is undoubtedly a typo Karstens and Carstens. The former type derived from the name of the inventor of the Carstensz Pyramid, which is sometimes spelled as January Karstens. 

Question of the Carstensz Pyramid 's height 

Officially recognized high Carstensz Pyramid is 4884 m (16,023 feet some sources claim 16,013 feet). Despite so many sources still claimed its peak is 5030 meters (16,503 feet). Australia's air navigation map excerpts 16,503 feet (5030 meters).However, in 1994, the height of the world recognized publisher of maps and guides from Verlag noted in the "Ost Indonesien" map altitude 5030 m. 

All of our equipment (both altimeter and GPS 's) show a lower height than 5000 meters (16,400 feet) at the top of Carstensz Pyramid. Therefore, in line with other leading mountain climbers, we show the official 4884 meter high Carstensz Pyramid (16,023 feet) However, we are still unsure about the reasons behind the air navigation map and the wrong Verlag .. 
Mountain snow on the equator " 

Carstensz Pyramid - Top Central 

Carstensz Pyramid - Puncak Jaya (4884 m, 16,023 ft), Puncak Mandala (4640m, 15,223 ft), and Trikora Peak (4730m, 15,518 ft), are the three highest and most famous mountains west of Papua. Carstensz Pyramid is the highest of them, and it belonged to Snow Mountains (Mountains Maoke in local language). They are located in the highlands of west central Jayawijaya.

The legendary tropical Snow Mountains are located in the middle of endless forests in West Papua. They are the logical end of Cembalo Plato. Of the three mountains, the only Carstensz Pyramid belongs among them. Although Snow Mountain massif is not too high, and it lies 4 degrees south of the equator, it contains four relatively large glaciers. Biggest of them is not the Carstensz Glacier, but extends the outskirts of the Nga Glacier Island peak (4862 m, 15,951 ft). Some people call it the peak Puncak Jaya Indonesia, for long regarded as the highest peak in Papua. 

And where the name comes from the Snow Mountains "Not only glacier on the summit, but the reason is also the fact that there is an unusual snow storm tropical snow often. Bringing snow to the area located as high as 4,000 m (13,123 ft). 

Carstensz Pyramid wall is about 500-600 meters (1640-1968 ft) high. At the top is traversed by a giant ledge, where for large culoars go. The bottom of the wall - approx. 300 m (984 ft) is "neat" bent at an angle of 10-15 °. The top of the wall is approx. 80 m (262 ft), and nearly vertical. The top of Carstensz Pyramid crista most rugged and open. Some climbers say that the wall of Carstensz Pyramid is as sharp as glass, and they are not far from the truth.

SEA TRIBE - Riau Province

HISTORY OF CULTURE | SEA TRIBE - Riau Province | Sea Tribe or often also called The Sea is a tribe that inhabited the Riau Islands, Indonesia. In broader terms include the Sea People "various tribes and groups that settled in the islands and estuaries in the Riau Islands-Linga, Seven Island, Batam Island, and coastal areas and islands off the coast of East Sumatra and the Malay peninsula south. "

Another name for the Sea People are People Strait. Sea People are sometimes confused with other maritime tribes, pirates People

Historically, The Sea used to be a pirate, but plays an important role in the kingdom of Srivijaya, the Sultanate of Malacca and Johor Sultanate. They guard the straits, repel pirates, traders guide to the port of the kingdom-the kingdom, and maintain their hegemony in the area

The language of the Sea

The language of the Sea has a resemblance to Malay and Malay is classified as Local. Currently, they generally work as fishermen. As The Sea Bajau tribe is sometimes dubbed as a "wanderer of the sea", because they moved to live on a boat.


In the glory days of Malacca, The Sea is an important supporter of the maritime kingdom. When Malacca fell they continued their allegiance to the descendants of the Sultan of Malacca who later founded the Sultanate of Johor. When the Dutch were planning an attack that began to rise rival Johor Malacca - which in the 17th century the Dutch seized upon - the Sultan of Johor threatened to order the People Sea People Sea to stop the protection on Dutch ships.

In 1699 Sultan Mahmud Shah, the last descendants of the Malacca-Johor dynasty, was killed. Sea People who refuse to acknowledge the Treasurer dynasty ascended the throne as the new sultan of Johor, as Treasurer of the family suspected of being involved in the murder. When in 1718 the King of Small, a Minangkabau adventurers claim to the throne of Johor, the Sea People give their support. But with the support of soldiers from Bugis Sultan Sulaiman Shah dynasty Treasurer regained the throne of Johor. With the help of the people of the Sea (the tribe and the tribe headdress Bentan) helped establish the Sultanate of Siak Raja Kecil, after being expelled from Johor.

In the 18th century role as the Sea People guard the Strait of Malacca to Johor-Riau Sultanate gradually replaced by the Bugis.


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HISTORY OF CULTURE | THE CULTURE OF KANEKES TRIBE | Kanekes person or persons Bedouin / Bedouin are an indigenous group in the Sunda region Lebak regency, Banten. Their population of about 5,000 to 8,000 people, and they constitute one of the tribes to apply isolation from the outside world. In addition they also have the confidence taboo to be photographed.

The name "Bedouin" is the name given by residents outside the community group, originated from the term Dutch researchers who seem to equate them with Badawi Arab groups who are sedentary societies (nomadic). Another possibility is due to the River and Mountain Bedouin Bedouin in the northern part of the region. They themselves prefer to call themselves as urang Kanekes or "people Kanekes" according to their region name, or a designation that refers to the name of their village as Urang Cibeo (Garna, 1993). 

Community Groups
Kanekes people still have a historical relationship with the Sundanese. Physical appearance and their language is similar to the Sundanese people in general. The only difference is their beliefs and way of life. Kanekes people shut themselves from the influence of the outside world and strictly maintain their traditional way of life, while the Sundanese are more open to foreign influences and the majority embraced Islam.

Kanekes society in general is divided into three groups: tangtu, panamping, and dangka (Permana, 2001).

Tangtu group is a group known as Kanekes In (In the Bedouin), who most closely follow the custom, namely residents living in three villages: Cibeo, Cikertawana, and Cikeusik. Characteristic Kanekes People are dressed in white, natural and dark blue and wearing a white headband. They were forbidden by custom to meet with foreigners (non-citizen)

Kanekes In is part of the whole person Kanekes. Unlike Kanekes Outside, residents Kanekes In still adhere to customs of their ancestors. 

Most of the rules adopted by the tribe Kanekes In include:
  1. Not allowed to use vehicles to transport
  2. Not allowed to use footwear
  3. Door of the house should face north / south (except the chairman's house Pu'un or customary)
  4. Prohibition of use of electronic tools (technology)
  5. Using fabric, black / white as the clothes are woven and sewn himself, and not allowed to use modern clothing.
  6. The second community group called panamping are those known as Kanekes Outer (Outer Baduy), who lived in various villages scattered around the region Kanekes In, like Cikadu, Kaduketuk, Kadukolot, Gajeboh, Cisagu, and so forth. Community Kanekes Foreign distinctively dressed and black headband.
  7. Foreign Kanekes are people who have come out of peoples and regions Kanekes In. There are several things that cause the release of citizens to Kanekes Kanekes In Outer:
  8. They have violated customary Kanekes In society.
  9. Desiring to get out of Kanekes In
  10. Married to a member of Foreign Kanekes
  11. The characteristics of the people Kanekes Foreign
  12. They have known technologies, such as electronic equipment, although its use remains a ban for every citizen Kanekes, including residents of Foreign Kanekes. They use the equipment in a way secretly to escape detection for superintendent of Kanekes In.
  13. The development process Kanekes Foreign houses have been using assistive devices, such as saws, hammers, nails, etc., which previously prohibited by customary Kanekes In.
  14. Using traditional dress with black or dark blue (for men), which indicates that they are not holy. Sometimes using modern clothes such as T-shirts and jeans.
  15. Using modern household appliances, such as mattresses, pillows, plates & cups glass & plastic.
  16. They live outside the area Kanekes In.
If Kanekes Inner and Outer Kanekes Kanekes lived in the area, then "Kanekes Dangka" Kanekes live outside the area, and currently resides in the remaining two villages, namely Padawaras (Cibengkung) and Sirahdayeuh (Cihandam). Dangka village serves as a sort of buffer zone of influence from outside (Permana, 2001).

PAMONA TRIBE - South Sulawesi

HISTORY OF CULTURE | PAMONA TRIBE - South Sulawesi | Pamona tribe, or often called Poso tribe, inhabiting almost all districts of Poso, Tojo Una-Una, Morowali, even South Sulawesi (North Luwu). While a small part of life wander in various regions in Indonesia. If there is a tribe in an area Pamona, Poso Pillars are usually always there, the container assembly of the tribe to do the activities in the area. Religious affiliation of nearly all members of this tribe are Christians.

Christianity entered the area about 100 years ago and until now accepted as a popular religion. Now all like-minded churches to this church shelter under the auspices of the organization's central Sulawesi Christian Church (GKST), based in Tentena, Poso district, Central Sulawesi. Most of the people's daily use of language Pamona (Bare'e) and Indonesian language with local language style. They work as farmers, civil servants, Pastor, entrepreneur, and others.

Real interest is not synonymous with ethnic Pamona Poso Poso Because in principle there is no tribe. That there is an area called Poso, inhabited by a tribe of Pamona. The word "Poso" itself in Pamona language means "broken". Origin of the name of Poso, which means broken, supposedly starting from the formation of Lake Poso. That said, Poso lake formed from a slab of hilly land, where under the slab of the hill there is a spring. Lowlands around the hill is, so that the flow of water from the mountains of gathered around the hill.

Stagnant water eroded the soil around the hill so the longer the water is sipped into the ground, met with the water in the bowels of the earth. The result is abrasion is the cause of volatility in the structure that is rather sandy soil. Gradually the outskirts of the hill no longer hold back the hill on which the load, resulting in rupture of the bottom of the hill came in, fell into the pool of spring water under the hill, thus forming a small lake. For the people of the era Pamona tribe narrated this incident as an outbreak of the mountain that forms the lake, so dinanai "Danau Poso" the newly formed lake, more and more enlarged, because the springs in the mountains surrounding the lake to flow towards the new. As a result, lake water discharge from time to time continue to rise, so that its surface area to be so wide. accordance with the properties of water are always looking for the lowlands, then at a certain altitude, tebentuklah sebua river that leads to the sea shore of the lake as a result could no longer accommodate the flow of water. Because the river comes from the Poso lake, then the new river, named the same name, namely Poso (Poso river). New river estuary which formed was then inhabited by some residents, because in the new river was there a lot of fish. Collection of new settler population was then named the village with the same title, namely Poso.

Dero dance, or Madero is a dance popular among the Tribe Pamona. This dance is held at folk festivals. Usually performed by young people. Circular dance performed by holding hands, while unrequited rhyme cheerful music lacks. Some areas in Palu prohibit activities or Madero Dero dance because it is often triggered fights among youths who fought the attention of the girls.

Following the customs of Europeans who have a family name or clan or family name, then the Pamona people also have clans like the following:

Banumbu, Bali'e, Baloga, Betalino, Beto, Botilangi, Bulinde, Bungkundapu, Bungu, Buntinge, Gilirante, Gimbaro, Gugu, Gundo, Kampindo, Kalembiro, Kalengke, Karebungu, Kayori, Kayupa, Kogege, Kolombuto, Kuko, Langgari, Lambangasi, Labiro, Liante, Lu'o, Lumaya, Manganti, Meringgi, Mossepe, Mowose, Nyolo-nyolo, Nggau, Nggo'u, Nua, Nyaua, Pakuli, Palaburu, Parimo, Paroda, Pasunu, Patara, Pebadja, Peninnah, Penyami, Pesudo, Poa, Pobonde, Podala, Purasongka, Pusuloka, Rampalino, Rampalodji, Rantelangi, Rare'a, Ruagadi, Rubo, Ruutana, Sancu'u, Sawiri, Sigilipu, So'e, Sowolino, Tabanci, Tadalangingi, Talasa, Tarante, Tasiabe, Tawuku, Tawurisi, Tekora, Tepara, Tiladuru, Tobondo, Tolimba, Toumbo, Ule, Ululai, Warara, Werokila nce'i to mori, Wuri, Wutabisu, etc..

ALAS TRIBE - Southeast Aceh Regency

HISTORY OF CULTURE | ALAS TRIBE - Southeast Aceh Regency | Alas tribe is one of the tribes who settled in Southeast Aceh Regency, Aceh Province (which is also commonly known as Tanah Alas). The word "pedestal" in Alas means "mat". This is something to do with the circumstances that area that stretches flat as a mat on the sidelines of the Bukit Barisan. Alas Land area traversed many rivers, one of whom is the Lawe Alas (Alas River).

Alas most of the tribes living in the countryside and live off agriculture and livestock. Land Foundation is a granary for the region of Aceh. But other than that they are also gardening rubber, coffee, and hazelnut, and to find a variety of forest products, such as wood, rattan, resins and incense. While they ternakkan animals are horses, goats, buffalo, and cows.

Alas village or village people called Kute. A Kute usually inhabited by one or several clans, called the merge. Members of the merge comes from a common ancestor. The pattern of their family life is togetherness and unity. They drew a line of patrilineal descent, meaning the male lineage. They also adhere to traditional exogamy merge, meaning that a mate should be sought in another merge.

Interest Alas 100% are Muslims. But there is also a shamanic practices such as trust in agricultural activities. They perform ceremonies with certain background beliefs to their farms bring good results or protected from pests.

Ukhang pads or pads or inverse Khang had settled in the valley of the Alas Alas, long before the Dutch colonial government into Indonesia where the state of the Alas valley residents have been immortalized in a book written by a Dutch named Radermacher (1781:8), when viewed from the record history of Islam to the Land Alas, in the year 1325 (Effendy, 1960:26) then obviously this population already exists, although still a nomad by embracing animist beliefs.

Alas name intended for one or ethnic group, while the area is called the word Tanoh Alas Alas. According Kreemer (1922:64) the word "Alas" is derived from the name of a head of ethnicity (the grandson of King Lambing), he settled in the village of the oldest in the village of Stone Alas Tanoh Mbulan.

According to Iwabuchi (1994:10) king who first settled in Tanoh Alas Batumbulan is located in the village known as the offspring of Lambing KING KING Lotung or known by the grandson of TATAE MONTH TEACHER Land of Samosir Batak, Tatae are siblings of the Month KING SUMBA. Teachers Tatae Moon has five children, namely Raja Uti, Saribu King, Limbong, Sagala, and Glare King. Saribu King is the King of his parents and the King Lontung Borbor. King Lontung mempuyai seven children namely, Sinaga, Situmorang, Pandiangan, Nainggolan, Simatupang, Arita, and Siregar, known as siampudan or payampulan. Pandiangan an ancestor Pande, Suhut Nihuta, Gultom, Samosir, Harianja, Pakpahan, Sitinjak, Solin in Dairi, Sebayang in Tanah Karo, and SELIAN in Tanah Alas, Keluet in South Aceh.

Lambing is the ancestor of King merga Sebayang in Tanah Karo and Selian in Tanah Alas. Lambing King is the youngest child of three brothers of the eldest brother is King Patuha in Dairi, and number two is King Kluet hornbills who migrated to South Aceh, the descendants and followers are merga Pinem or Pinim.

King then moved to Tanah Karo Lambing where the descendants and followers are merga Sebayang with areas of up to perbesi Tigabinanga and Gugung Karo District.
It is estimated that in the 12th century King Lambing emigrated to the Land of Karo Alas, and settled in the village of Batumbulan, descendants and followers are merga Selian. In the Land of King Alas Lambing has three children, King Lelo (Raje Catfish) and his descendants in Ngkeran, later King Adeh which is Kertan ancestors and his people, and the third is that Kaye Raje descendants settled in Batumbulan, including Bathin. Lambing Raje descendants in the Land Alas until 2000, has mempuyai descent to 26 who live scattered in the region Alas Land (Effendy, 1960:36; Sebayang 1986:17).

After King Lambing later following a god king whose wife is the daughter of King Lambing. Lambing king handed the reins of leadership of the King to the King of Gods (law). Known as Malik Ibrahim, the bearer of Islam to the famous Tanah Alas. Evidence of this historical site is located in Muara Lawe attitude, Batumbulan village. Malik Ibrahim has one son and named ALAS and through 2000 has had a descent to 27 who reside in the district of Southeast Aceh, Banda Aceh, Medan, Malaysia and elsewhere.

There are things that attract the attention of an agreement between the son of King Lambing (King Adeh, Kaye and Raje Catfish King) with the Gods son of King (King Alas) that syi'ar Islam brought by the King of Gods accepted by the whole society Alas, but that belongs to the customs by King Lambing remains in common use, brevity of life conceived customary law was conceived to death (Islam) so it is clear that the assimilation of the cultural customs of the tribe Alas has been going on since hundreds of years ago.

At the beginning of Malik Ibrahim kedatanganya migration through the eastern coast (Pasai) before there is agreement on, he still holds matrealistik of Minang culture Kabau, so his son as heir to the kingdom of King Alas follow the lineage and the mother of Selian merga. After King Alas received from King Lambing assimilation with the teachings of Islam, since it began to settle his descendants settled his line following the line of my father. Alas king also known as the heir to the kingdom, because of the large inheritance left by his father and grandfather since that's known as Tanoh Alas. After attendance at Batumbulan Selian, appears again another kingdom known as the base Sekedang Bambel territory covers up to Lawe Wells. King sekedang according to some information at the beginning of the Land Alas kehadiranya is to find the parents of the migrants to KING GOD Land Alas. King Sekedang which is the first one to come to the Land Alas there are an estimated mid-13 th century ago is named Nazarudin known as Datuk HAIR calls that come from Pasai.

The next arrivals during the King Foundation is a group of Acehnese coast Megit Ali and his descendants developed in Biak Muli known as merga Beruh. Then occurred the next migrants who formed several genera, but they remain an expansion of Batumbulan, residents Batumbulan mempuyai several groups or merga that includes Pale Dese who settled in the northwestern part of terutung Batumbulan pedi, and then present Selian group, the group came Sinaga, Keruas and Pagan joined another clan besides that Munthe, Pinim and Karo-Karo.

Marga Pale Dese is a resident who first occupied the land Alas, but do not have a kingdom in recorded history. Then there were also Deski who settled in the west end of village.

while according to Bernard HM Vlekke "Nusantara: A History of Indonesia" Translated by: Samsudin Berlin (Archipelago: History of Indonesia) Printed by: PT Gramedia, Jakarta, ed 4, 2008.

ISLES Indonesia is located in the main sea route between the eastern and southern Asia. In between these regions, with the bias itself is expected to have populations of various races. Racial mixture in the Hindu is very interesting because it happened to the three major races of mankind living in the surrounding continents. Anthropological discoveries add much complexity to the study of racial problems in the cluster island. There is no doubt that Java should be considered where tingal one of the earliest human race. In 1890 Dr. Eugene Dubolis found the remains of a skeleton that seems to not be classified either as an ape or a human. Scientific discussions about the remains of "Pithecanthopus erectus" (the name suggested Dubois) resulted in an uncertain conclusion. For a long time, few new discoveries that are biased to explain this difficult problem. But 40 years later, this picture changed suddenly.

Between 1931 and 1941, anthropologist Oppenoorth and Von Koenigswald discovered fossil remains of some ancient human species originating from the early or mid-Pleistocene Kala. All of these findings occurred in the vicinity of Surakarta in Java Tenggah. The discovery turned out to be very important for anthropology and biology in general. But it did not mean for the history of Indonesia. People Indonesia primeval descendants of immigrants from Asia.

Between the time of the arrival of immigrants Pithecanthpopus and there may be thousands of times throughout the centuries. There are several theories regarding the ethnological development of Indonesia. Linguistic and racial situation is very complex. Several hundreds of languages ??in the islands dipercakapan Indonesai, and often several languages ??were spoken in a small island. Residents of the small area can consist of a very different racial types. There is not one island, betapun slight, the population is not a racial mix-ups, and in all the islands (except Java) we discover primitive tribes living alongside people with a high degree of civilization. One of the most striking aspect of this problem was that in every big island there is a big difference between coastal and inland populations. P. and F. Sarasin brothers, the famous explorer interior of Sulawesi, is the first by scientists who formulate a plausible theory of civilization among the tribes of the interior with the inhabitants of this coast.

This theory was later further developed by other anthropologists, anthropology. Sarasins theory is that the indigenous population of Indonesia is archipelago is a dark-skinned race of small stature, and that this race was originally inhabited the whole of southeastern Asia. At that time the area is one solid land. Of course, from the period glasia ice never covered the islands of the East Indies, but at the end of the last glacial period the sea level rose so high that the South China Sea and Java Sea are formed and separating the volcanic mountainous region of Indonesia from the mainland. In vain the natives considered separate still live in rural areas, while coastal areas inhabited by the recently formed new arrivals. Sarasins descendants of the original race was called Vedda people, according to the name of one of the most famous tribes who entered this group, the ethnic group in Cambodia Hieng, Miao and Yao-tse-jen in China, as well as Senoi in peninsula Malaya.

In the islands of Indonesia are the people who live in the Sumatran jungle (stronghold, Lubu, and Mamak) and Toala in Sulawesi. Research in the future allow further decomposition of the complex threads that make up the pattern of racial Indonesia. Collection of anthropological and archaeological evidence seems to indicate that the oldest population of the Indonesian archipelago is closely related to Melanesian ancestors of today and that "Vedda" mentioned Sarasin include negrito race which, although rare, there are still all over Africa, South Asia, and Oceania. So Vadda is "immigration" into the world's first island is uninhabited and still can be distinguished from their predecessors thanks to the model of stone tools they left behind. Both races must have been living on the stage "mesolitik" primitive culture. Long after the arrival of two new wave of immigrants Negrito spread in Indonesia. They are clearly the type of neolithic culture and their early settlements that resemble ancient Chinese pottery. The newcomer is certainly much larger than the native population and their arrival forced the natives and earlier immigrants who come seeking refuge in the forests. Even today people from the tribes of this nation shy and rarely seen unless they visited the place in the interior are still wild.

They had no choice but to merge or perish. Sarasins newcomer is called the Proto Malays and Deutero Malay. Since their arrival in two waves of migration, separated in time limit which, according to estimates more than 2,000 years. Proto Malay grandmother monyang believed was possible from all the people who are now considered entry Malay Polynesian groups which spread from Madagascar to the easternmost islands in the Pacific, they are expected to migrate to the Indonesian archipelago from southern China. In China their original place of residence is estimated to lie in a region roughly including the Yunnan province now. From there they migrated to Indonesia and Siam, and then to the Islands of Indonesia.

Their arrival seemed simultaneously with the emergence of the first neolithic tools in Indonesia and thus can be set on around 3,000 BC. According to the theory Sarasin, a descendant of Proto Malays in turn pushed inland by the arrival of new immigrants, Deutero Malays, who also came from the northern part of Indochina and surrounding regions. Deutero Malay identified with the person who introduced iron tools and weapons into the world of the Indonesian archipelago. Studies on the development of civilization in Indochina seemed to indicate a date for the event: the immigration took place between 300 and 200 BC. By itself Proto Malays and Deutero Malay mingle freely, which explains the difficulty to distinguish the two racial groups were among the people of Indonesia. Proto Malay deemed to include Alas and Gayo in northern Sumatra and the Toraja in Sulawesi. Almost everyone else in Indonesia, except the people of Papua and nearby islands, included in class Deutero Malay.