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History of Islam in Indonesian

HISTORY OF CULTURE | History of Islam in Indonesian | It is important to learn the history of preaching Islam in Indonesia. In accordance with the Word of God in the Qur'an verse 111 that there ibrah study history (lessons). With memepelajari history in the past, we can draw lessons for the future created a plan or a better concept, especially for mission in our country, Indonesia. In accordance with the hadith of the Messenger of Allah "Today should be better than yesterday and tomorrow should be better than today".

"Indeed in their stories, there is instruction for people of understanding ..." (Surah Yusuf verse 111).

Language is the highest value of a civilization. A nation is affected certain value if the language was influenced by these values. Indonesian heavily influenced by the Arabic language (language of the Qur'an), for example words like the word bottom of this ibrah meaningful lessons and many more Indonesian language derived from Arabic. This proves that the culture of Indonesia sudahdipengaruhi by Islamic culture.

History of Islam in Indonesia through the half - a crucial stage:

1. First round, 7th century BC (1st century Hijri).

In the 7th century AD, Islam had come to the archipelago. The Dai who came to Indonesia comes from the Arabian Peninsula that has been adapted to the nation of India namely Gujarat and there are also people who have to adapt to the Chinese nation, from many different directions ie from the Silk Road (trade routes) dawah start reaching the coast-the coastal archipelago.

Since the beginning of Islam never discriminating function for someone to act as dai (missionary interpreters). Perform religious obligations in Islam is not just caste (class) only certain but for every society in Islam. While in other religions that have only certain levels of authority to spread the religion, namely the pastor. Appropriate expression of Imam Shaheed Hasan Al-Bana "Nahnu du'at qabla kulla syai" means that we are preachers before other professions.

Dawah arrive in Indonesia through its sailors or merchants carrying merchandise also bring Islamic morality as well as introduce Islamic values. Berbenalan with the Islamic community as open-minded, glorified as a man and this is what distinguishes the entry of other religions before Islam and after. For example the entry of the Christian religion to Indonesia this coincided with Gold (gold or wealth) and glory (glory or power) than the Gospel which is the motive of religion coincided with the spread of colonialism and power. While Islam is a peaceful way.

So first of all spread Islam in the archipelago, from the Muslim communities residing in coastal areas evolved into the port cities and trading and growing until it became the Islamic kingdoms of Aceh to start Ternata and which is the center of the kingdom Tidore Eastern part of Indonesia to Irian Jaya region.

2. Second half, 13th century BC.

In the 13th century AD Islamic empires stood in various corners of the archipelago. Which is a resurrection moment of political forces, especially the people of Java region when the Majapahit kingdom was gradually decreased his authority because of internal conflict. This was exploited by Sunan Kalijaga which foster in those areas with the descendants of Raden Fatah was successively kings of Majapahit to establish the first Islamic kingdom in Java island is the kingdom of Demak. At the same time also emerged the Islamic kingdoms of others, although it is still localized.

In the 13th century AD there fenoma called the Wali Songo ie clerics who spread propaganda in Indonesia. Wali Songo develop a missionary or Islamization process through the channels:
A) Trade
B) Marriage
C) Education (pesantren)

Pesantren is a genuine institution of the roots of Indonesian culture, and also the adoption and adaptation Hasanah pre-Islamic culture that is not out of the Islamic values that can be utilized in the spread of Islam. This proves Islam is very much appreciate the local culture while not contradictory to Islamic values.

D) Art and culture
At that time the media spectacle that is very famous in Javanese society kkhususnya ie puppets. Wali Songo using puppets as a medium of propaganda with the previous coloring these puppets with Islamic values. Which characterizes the influence of Islam in the wayang teaches egaliterialisme namely human equality before God with the inclusion of such figures punakawam Semar, Gareng, Petruk, and Bagong. The Guardian also composed traditional songs (regions) in the Islamic style, this means nasyid already exist in Indonesia since the time of the guardian. In traditional ceremonies were also given the values of Islam.
 E) Tasawwuf
The fact of history that there tarikat-tarikat in Indonesia being the network of spreading Islam.

3. Third round, the Dutch colonial period.
In the 17th century BC, precisely the year 1601 came the Dutch East Indies empire regions of the archipelago which was initially only trade but eventually colonize. The Dutch came to Indonesia with its trading room that is VOC, semejak almost all regions of the archipelago was colonized by the Dutch East Indies except Aceh. At that time between the kingdoms of Islam in Indonesia has not had time to form alliances or cooperation. This causes the spread of propaganda was interrupted.
With sumuliayatul (perfection) of Islam that there is no separation between certain aspects of life with others, this has been applied by the scholars at that time. When the occupation came, changing the Islamic boarding schools became headquarters of struggle, the students-students (students of pesantren) to jundullah (army of God) ready to fight invaders while ulamanya become commander of the army. Almost all regions in Indonesia to fight against the Muslims and their occupiers is ulamanya.

Potential to grow and expand in the 13th century into the power of resistance against the occupiers. This can be evidenced by the saga-saga in the Islamic kingdoms which contains the lyric-poem of struggle. Clerics inflame Jihad against the infidels of the Dutch colonizers. That eventually overwhelmed the Dutch experience using these strategies:
  • Politics of divide et impera, which is in fact a divisive or a play off between the strength of indigenous scholars, the Padri wars for example in West Sumatra and Java Diponegoro war.
  • Generating Prof. Dr. Cristian Snouk Hourgonye alias Abdul Gafar keIndonesiaan a Professor at the University of the Netherlands East Indies was also an Orientalist who had studied Islam in Mecca, he argues that the Dutch government allowing Muslims to worship only mahdhoh (special) and forbidden to speak or to make practical politics. The idea was undertaken by the Dutch government and one of them is a restriction against "Muslims will perform Hajj because that's when the struggle against colonialism maturation occurs.
4. Fourth round, 20th century AD
Early 20th century AD, the Dutch colonialists began to conduct political ethics or politics of reciprocation which is actually just make a layer of society that can help them in his government in Indonesia. Politics reciprocation providing education and jobs to the Indonesian people, especially Muslims but in fact the purpose for western sciences mensosialkan far from the Quran and hadith and will maketh colonial dolls. It is also preparing for the layers of bureaucracy that can not be held by another by the Dutch people. Pendidikanpun not getting the whole community but only Priyayi class (aristocracy), because that's what leaders are berasalkan ¬ movement leaders of the nobility.

Strategy of resistance against invaders in this period to be more formal organization than with weapons. Stand Organization of Islamic States is a national movement of the first organizations in Indonesia in 1905 that have a member of the aristocracy and the commoners to cover a large area. Budi Utomo 1908 stand that is still a regionalism that is Java, because it can be called the Organization of Islamic States first National movement instead of Budi Utomo.

Islamic States of the famous figures of HOS Tjokroaminoto who led the organization at the age of 25 years, a priyayis that because Islam holds it is expelled so that only a commoner. He worked as a laborer in a sugar factory. He was a major inspiration for the National movement in Indonesia. States of Islam under his leadership became a force to be reckoned Netherlands. Figures and other Islamic States is H. , Agus Salim and Abdul Muis, who nurture the youths who joined the Young Islamitend Bound is a national nature, which grew up on oath youth in 1928.

Islamic Da'wah in Indonesia continues to flourish in institutions such as the birth of Nadhatul Ulama, Muhammadiyah, Persis, and others. Institutions to those incorporated in the Islamization MIAI (Islamic Assembly of 'Ala Indonesia) which later changed its name to Masyumi (Shura Council of Indonesian Muslims), whose members are the heads of institutions to these Islamization.

During the Japanese occupation, carried out a strategy to divide the unity of the people by the Japanese forces by forming Sumubu ministries (Ministry of Religious Affairs). Japanese Dutch to continue the strategies carried out against Muslims. There was a Japanese who is familiar with Islamic Colonel Huri, he cut clerics in coordination with the regional center, so that scholars in the village of ill-informed and consequently make people can terbodohi.

Japanese occupation government provides facilities for Indonesia's independence by establishing BPUPKI (Investigation Agency Efforts Preparation of Indonesian Independence) and followed by PPKI (Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence) and more conical longer a Committee of Nine, the Committee is to formulate the Charter of Jakarta on June 22, 1945. Piagram Jakarta is the highest consensus to describe the diversity of Indonesian people who are looking for a formula to live together. But there is controversy in the sentence that this charter is removal of "7 words" run the full liability for the followers of the Islamic Shari'a-adherents are located on the fourth paragraph after the sentence was based on Ketuhan State Almighty.

The fifth round, 20th & 21st century. At this stage the process of da'wah (Islamization) in Indonesia have the feature of the globalization of information with the influences of international Islamic movements that will effectively build the strength of Islam is more intact, including all their dimensions. Actually if Indonesia does not colonized the process of Islamization in Indonesia will take place in peace because they are culturally and structurally build strength. This is because the initial entry of Islam that is humane, the dignity of people who can build a large majority of sudra (the lowest group of community structures in the kingdom) and build the local economy. History proves that the port cities (trade center), which represents the cities whose economies are better developed cities of Islam. In other words Islam in Indonesia when the occupation will not occur is a Muslim region of the largest and strongest. Nevertheless God destine Amount of population in Indonesia is the world's largest Muslim, but still a big question mark whether the quality is comparable with the quantity.

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