Recent Articles


HISTORY OF CULTURE | ETHNIC CHINESE IN BENGKULU | The researchers intend to conduct research on the early history of Chinese growth of Bengkulu, which is one community that affect the reflection of the attitude of the local indigenous communities against their existence. In consideration of ethnic researchers chose this, because it has ethnic influences and a very significant role of socio-economic conditions in Bengkulu. Especially when there is a change of government structure Keasisten residenan be increased Bengkulu Bengkulu Residency. Meanwhile, as mentioned above, until now rarely found in research on the development of Chinese economic activity in colonial times, especially in Bengkulu.

Several research questions posed include:
  • How does traditional Chinese trade developments in Bengkulu in the late eighteenth century to the early nineteenth century?
  • What about social interaction and settlement model Chinatown in Bengkulu in the late eighteenth century to the early nineteenth century?
  • How economic development and societal change in Bengkulu in the late eighteenth century to the early nineteenth century?
Document Review and Library: The resources obtained through the research archives stored at the National Archives of Indonesia and literature by emphasizing primary source categories. While that includes fixed secondary sources is also needed in order to complete the primary sources.

This study uses historical method which includes four stages. The first stage is a heuristic, namely to collect historical sources via search archives, and library research. The second stage is critical, ie check the authenticity and validity of the source derived. The third stage is the interpretation of the interpretation of the data so as to obtain the facts of history. The fourth stage is the historiography, which presents the facts obtained in the form of historical writing.

In the study of world history we know that the process of colonization in everywhere, everything begins with the activities of trade, economic domination and then increasing to a mastery of politics. So that was happening in the areas of Bengkulu. The growth of industrialization in Europe, particularly in the nineteenth century affected the development of the city. The entry of foreign private capital especially since 1870 as a milestone in the implementation of a liberal economy.

Foreign private entrepreneurs to invest in plantations, among others. Industrialization demanded plantation infrastructure development including telecommunications and transportation lines of communication which of course will greatly affect the growth of the city. Trade and Industry also rose to become one of the pull factors and drivers of immigration. The foreign immigrants such as Europe, Arabia, India as well as China entered the Netherlands East Indies.The Chinese companies engaged in the sector intermediaries such as a distributor, agent, and sales of commodities in the domestic trade in medium and small scale. In addition, Chinese private group is still in chartering a government monopoly of commodity sales, which in the nineteenth century tended to increase and expand. Among them is the increase in sales of opium or opium pacht the greater the volume and marketing areas to inland areas. Economic activity by the Chinese in Indonesia during the colonial era is moving and expanding rapidly.

At first only as middlemen between European traders with producers of commodity goods in this case the indigenous population. Gradually almost all the cycles of economic activity is dominated by the Chinese who are tenacious and diligent. Besides, the opportunities presented by the colonial government to monopolize certain goods.Various regulations have been made the colonial government to put the Chinese on a particular position. Wisdom of the colonial government was assessed by Skinner as a reflection of the wisdom of uncertainty. During the nineteenth century the Chinese people must live in the middle of the city that have been determined and can not be free to go without the permission of the Dutch government. These restrictions expire simultaneously with the increasing wave of Chinese migrants after World War I (G. William Skinner, in Mely G. Tan, 1979: 5).

In District of Bengkulu, there are two systems of government that is indigenous and European territorial which sometimes overlap, but both remain under the authority of a resident. As a victim of the wisdom that is so erratic this section discusses the position of the Chinese people in Bengkulu Residency whether it is reflected in the legal domicile, citizenship, and civil status. The colonial government strictly divide society into three classes, namely: the top strata were European, east of foreigners, including China are in the middle, and the natives are in the bottom layer. In 1919 a law officer class was divided into two parts, each class of Chinese law and class rather than Chinese law officer (See Amen Budiman, 1979:49). Discrimination against the Chinese in addition to the determination of residence (wijken stelsel) and the travel permit system (passen stelsel) also there are certain restrictions that the Chinese are actually very painful.The law applies to people who are different from European law for the Chinese and Arabs, while the two laws are slightly different from the laws that apply to the natives. Legal issues concerning the civil status of the Chinese is a complicated legacy of colonial times. Law and colonial administration in the nineteenth century is assumed that all people including the Chinese who were born in the Netherlands and the regions of the colony as the burghers Dutch Country (Onderdaan) even for statistical purposes and administration of the Chinese people were classified as foreign east so that legal discrimination is very painful and detrimental to the Chinese.Indeed the world economy (trade) opened a new modern and the attention of the Chinese after the 18th century. Although previously have long known that the Chinese nomads as middlemen. However, as previously described their role is very small, just as retailers and intermediaries to the outside world. Dutch presence quickly strengthen the economic motives of people overseas in the field of trade intermediaries.

According to the 1930 Verslag Indisch brokerage is a "link" between the importers on the one hand and small traders and consumers on the other. In this case the trade intermediary distribution and subsequently as the "eyes of the Chain" between exporters from the results of population production. In this case involves the collection of trade intermediaries (Indisch Verslag ,1990:193-218).

While Liem Twan Djie more to see the situation in Java in particular and to deviate from the restrictions that are commonly used in the west, the trade intermediary intended as a trading branch into the link between large-scale trade and or industry on the one hand and small trade or consumer population, each manufacturer on the other (Liem Twan Djie, 1995: 19).Referring to the definition above, then the broker in this case is the Chinese people as an intermediary between producers and consumers of raw materials in the collection of trade. Intermediary function here vary, they can serve buyers, processors, importers, contractors, suppliers, and distributors (Donald Earl Willmott, 1960:45). In this case these functions are often combined in one or two companies (airlines trade).Traditionally, Chinese middlemen function is to collect farm produce and submit to major exporters shipped to Europe and other places or to be transported to markets in other parts of Indonesia.

At the time of the VOC, the Chinese people become intermediaries between the indigenous population and the VOC (Ibid: 46).From the first days of the Dutch East Indies Company, the discriminatory policy of the Netherlands to strengthen the position of the Chinese people as an intermediary for the economy and practically to exclude indigenous merchant class. The case in Banten can be used as a reference. Netherlands by means of the hands of Chinese traders, for example, managed to corner the pepper trade routes that had previously been controlled in Banten. In this case used as a tool is to play the currency exchange rate used in the traffic trade (A. Made Tony Supriatna, 1996:70). Chinese traders who had long held the monetary authority to create and circulate picis currency, ie currency made of lead and treated as a medium of exchange. VOC as a joint venture of Dutch trade, exchange toying picis, by controlling the raw materials and impose only the direct trade with the VOC into a profitable transaction.

The trick is to impose dual monetary system, so that the VOC is a party that wins. Meanwhile, Chinese merchants as middlemen also do not bear the loss.From 1885 Bengkulu was under political and economic domination of England, in this case run by the East India trade fleet (the East India Company, abbreviated EIC), based in Madras, India. The British originally came as traders, but then became the local rulers to sign a trade agreement or a statement pepper pepper willingness to grow, even in the environment regulates the life of society. In addition to agreements, the UK is also expanding its power. Expansion to the north of Bengkulu, among others: Muko-Muko, Bintuhan, Lais, Ketahun, Seblat, and Pillows. While the expansion into the area south of Bengkulu, among others: Manna, Kaur and Krui. This British expansion using mercenaries coming from Bugis (Bugis Corps) and the Bengal (India).

For defense and security and trade interests, the British built forts (Fort York and Fort Marlborough), house colonial officials, public roads, markets, and shops.Besides bringing people from other areas such as Java, Ambon, and the Bugis, the UK also bring in people from the French, Portuguese, Chinese, and Indian (Sipahi) as well as military manpower to help the British colonists. The entire population of the area of Bengkulu in 1823 from north to south until the Krui of approximately 18 000 Life (ABLapian and Soewadji S, 1984:95). British power in Bengkulu until 1824, a result of the Treaty of London, the UK must submit to the Dutch Bengkulu. Since 1824 until 1942 Bengkulu under the authority of the Dutch colonists.Geographically, the area of Bengkulu allowing for trade and agriculture, besides known as a producer of export commodities, such as pepper, coffee, cloves, and other forest products.

The existence of facilities in the form of sea port that can accommodate the flow of goods from all over the Indonesian Ocean, making it one of the factors for people from other regions and foreign nations to come to the area of Bengkulu. For further with a lack of progress in transportation through land relations in the early twentieth century, then by the construction of highways, making it easier than people from other regions to come to the area of Bengkulu.The people who come to the area from Bengkulu and West Sumatra Palembang, most of them are coming to the business trade. Among them there were persistent and later assimilated with the native population.

While migrants from Java and the Sunda, their arrival is intended to work mostly agricultural land.The arrival of people from various regions alter the demographic structure in Bengkulu. The existence of those who blend in and assimilate certainly be devastating for indigenous people in Bengkulu in terms of religion, culture mapun in other cases in terms of religion for example, the traders, especially from Padang and Palembang.Residents of Bengkulu can be divided into two, namely the indigenous and the immigrant population. The natives are known there as follows: Rejang tribe, ethnic Serawai, and Malay ethnicity. Rejang tribe known as the most numerous, they are scattered mainly in onderafdeling Rejang, Lebong, Bengkulu, and Seluma. Ethnic groups are spread mainly in onderafdeling Serawai Manna, Seluma, and Kaur. Meanwhile, many Malay tribes inhabiting the coastal areas, urban areas, and the majority are located in the capital of Bengkulu. In addition to the three tribes of the above, there are also tribes that may be a fraction of these three tribes.

Ethnic groups are ethnic Lembak (in Padang Ulak duel), Muko-Muko, Kaur, and Pasemah.Indigenous peoples inhabit a region that can be differentiated into the three characteristics, namely: 1). The hills, they are a little produce rice and pepper (pepper), 2). Valley region, among others, from the hinterland of the highlands of Rejang, from Ulu Pasemah manna in Manna, in Seluma, in Kaur and in Krui. They mostly pepper growers, 3). Coastal areas, they are living in the area market whose activities revolve around the market. However, some also are derived from diverse groups of immigrants (J. Kathirythamby-Well, 1977:16).

The tribes known rejang the most numerous, at the time of Dutch colonial government divided into three, namely: who inhabit onderafdeling Lebong named Rejang Rejang Musi and Lembak, and that inhabit onderafdeling Lais and Bengkulu named Coastal Rejang. Rejang tribe came from four Petulai Petulai and each headed by a leader who is called the Rejang Ajai. Ajai word is derived from the word majai, which means the leader of a human society (Abdullah Siddik, 1980:32).Population mostly farming livelihood. As for those who live near the beach is more fun to fish. Incompatibility of land for agriculture and low fertility in some areas so there is malaria and abdominal pain. Most of the rice grown on dry land fields and there is also in the marshland, where there is too watery rice fields, especially in the Rejang and Lebong which there, in all river valleys Ketahun di Lebong converted into rice fields.

In addition to the rice part of agricultural crops, the population is also growing coffee grown in mountainous areas, tobacco as a second crop after rice crops in a field and also the nut. In addition, also planted corn, sugar cane, gambier, coconut, type bulbs, nuts, rubber, and rattan. Rice yields in Bengkulu mostly just enough for their own needs. Besides farming, they also like to hunt animals and have a hard working spirit.In Koloniaal Verslag 1880, reported that the most advanced agriculture in 1879 is in section Manna, Kaur, and especially in Krui located in the south. It was also reported that the resident section Manna and Kaur left welfare when compared with residents in the department Krui. Meanwhile, the poorest department in the areas of Bengkulu is a section Seluma residency. The population in rural areas are more fertile natural conditions, in 1879 the population increasingly busy planting coffee and rice. Also in Seluma, the population also appears to start opening the coffee farms and pepper in the highlands (Koloniale Verslag, 1880). For the results of existing plantation in Bengkulu, among others, are: coffee, cloves, pepper, nutmeg, wheat turkey, gambier, sugar cane, coconut, areca nut, tobacco, cotton, potatoes, beans, indigo, and tamarind trees.Di department capital of Bengkulu, the population earns a meager living trading, fishing, and porters. In addition, in the capital, there are also the builders, among others: carpenters, iron Pande, Pande gold and silver, masons, and laundress. In rural areas in addition to livelihood as a farmer, there is also a handyman. Among them: the carpenter, Pande iron, maker of trains, carts, making mats and baskets, as well as ship carpenters (located in Muko-Muko).

In some areas there are also women who make pots from clay craft. In addition, in Muko-Muko seems some people who make a variety of objects from the sap, such as washing equipment, cigarette makers, fabric lubricants. However, they are working only if there is an order only.Therefore, in Bengkulu about the industry in 1875 was not found, then no measure wages there, although there is wage based on compatibility. According to reports around the year 1875-1877, the wages of workers both for the Europeans, Foreign Orientals, and the natives are as follows:Wage workers ranged from f 0.75-f 1.25 a day. When compared to the wage worker in Palembang in Bengkulu, the lower, because in Kilkenny wage worker would average 2.50 per day f-f 1 Day laborers in the capital of Bengkulu receive wages ranging from f-f 0.40 0.65 per day, whereas in the interior received wages ranging from f-f 0.25 and 0.40 per day lower than in the capital. As for as porters transport if the work appears to show better, then the wage will increase to 0.75 f-f 1 a day.

Regular employees on the Europeans accept wage between f 10-f 15 per month plus mealsThe clerk at the Chinese native received around f 25-f 30 per month (Almegeen Verslag 0.1816-1878).In addition, there are also a few craftsmen in the areas of Bengkulu, although not so much. In Mesifit (7 km from the market Lais) there is the art of weaving as well as a knife maker and the tip of the spear. According to a report in 1875 many women in Bengkulu wear fabric made from the weaving itself, except in Muko-Muko section where there are weaving and craft activities of other women are not heard. This is reasonable, considering the women there have to help work the fields and usually they do heavy work. Weaving craft in Bengkulu done mainly by young girls. The result of weaving they are usually very rough, but strong. In addition to his own use in the form of clothing or gloves, the result of weaving they are also for sale.

The result of weaving that are sold are very unique, ie, in a few pieces of clothing decorated with the ornament of silk. Silk is obtained from silk that left alone, sometimes woven cloth is also adorned with gold thread, to the results of such a very high resale value (Algemeen Verslag 0.1876-1877).a. Changes in Demographic StructureAccording to reports, the natural population growth areas of Bengkulu Residency is not so fast. From the vast area that is 24,000 square kilometers, L. C. Memorie van Overgavenya Westenenk in 1921 (Memorie van Overgave, 1921), notes that in 1919 a total population of 228,451 inhabitants. This means every km, the average will only be occupied by 9 people.

Delayed growth and development of this population can be made possible because of problems in the areas of revenue, especially in the field of health care. This is due to the help and assistance from health professionals was lacking. Lack of nutrition and health care as a cause of the large number of people who died in childhood and old age. Another issue that also cause a delay of the natural growth of population is the difficulty in terms of marriage.The aborigines are the people from various tribes in Bengkulu and the largest number of tribes Rejang. According to a report in 1920, the group (tribe) which is the main indigenous people Rejang of 69,000 people (mainly scattered in onderafdeling Rejang, Lebong, Bengkulu, and Seluma), spare Pasemah many as 18,000 people (who are spread in the region upstream onderafdeling Manna, Seluma, and Kaur), spare Serawai sebayak 55,000 people (spread over onderafdeling Manna, Seluma, and Kaur), Lampung many as 29,500 groups of people scattered in onderafdeling Krui and Kaur, while also groups of people Minangkabau Muko-Muko. While migrants from Java and Sunda in the area of migration Kepahiang, Curup, and Muara Aman, and migrants from Java and the Sunda who came as contract workers plantation and European trade. In the month of November 1920 amounted to 13 500 people. The grouping of the population exists in some cities, hamlets and gutters are scattered near the bay and port, along a particular highway, in the foothills and mountains, and not far from the river mouth.The rapid rise in population after 1990 is caused by several things, namely:
  • Concerning indigenous people, the result of the merger and Rejang Lebong controller area in 1904 as many as 32 000 (originally was part of the residency of Palembang and then inserted into the residency of Bengkulu)
  • Regarding the Chinese and Europeans, due to the opening of a private gold mining in the area Lebong and some of them are also a labor contract
  • The existence of the business of colonization (agriculture, plantation, and mining) from the Dutch
Circumstances Bengkulu area does offer a wide colonization opportunities. It is considering as a result of the small number of residents, while there are still large land be left stranded. Indeed most of the land and forests of Bengkulu area has not been managed. According to reports, the native people themselves have no reservations with the existence of such colonization. This resulted in a new settlement for foreigners living in their neighborhood. Sometimes even the natives are asking the arrival of the colonists on the grounds will benefit in the presence of a dense population. According to the report in its development, in the Sundanese area Lebong far greater numbers than the indigenous population.

Regarding the Sundanese people in the area Lebong, in addition to rice cultivators them as colonists, they also as laborers in the mining company Rejang Lebong.Colonization of the first occurred in 1908, ie by the government to bring the population of Javanese and Sundanese. The first arrival of the colonists of this (particularly the Sundanese) brought to onderafdeling Rejang as agricultural colonists. As a result of onderafdeling appears three villages which then grow and succeed in the field of agriculture, namely: Water Simpang village, Kampung Permoe, and Kampung Talang Seed. Rejang onderafdeling agricultural colony was later also opened in Lubuk Mumpo in 1922 (Brief Gouvernemen Secretarie No.2096/20, 30 July 1929)The colony of Java that emerged in onderafdeling Lebong first was in 1911 that is called "Sukabumi", and later in 1919 called "New Magelang" (they were taken from Kutoarjo / region Residency Magelang), while "Garut" in 1931 (as contract laborers in the various plantations).

This new Magelang colonists first arrived as many as 44 families, including wives and children. In 1928 there are still experimental colonization contract workers (from the Pekalongan) in the area of plantations in onderafdeling Rejang, the settlement is between Kepahiang and Curup.Colonization di onderafdeling Lebong mainly located in the valley Ketahun with agricultural colonists, for the first of 300 families located in areas such Ketahun Valley. The presence of soil there is very good for rice farming. The land suitable for open fields available in the 3,000 shoulder. For the colonists, the land which provided at least one shoulder per family, while also spacious yard. Colonization of the government in Lebong as the core is expected to be a stimulant for the existence of spontaneous colonization.Agriculture in Bengkulu mainly are rice, but the rice was originally not a commodity of trade, because people usually only enough rice to meet their own needs. In addition to rice, crops such as maize, beans, Biyang (names of plants containing oil) and sweet by residents were also developed to complement the need for adequate food if they experience failure in rice cultivation. Incompatibility of land for agriculture and low fertility, resulting in partial areas experiencing famine and epidemics. According to government reports published in Koloniaal Verslag poor harvest in 1910 in the section Manna, Krui, Ipuh Market, and Market cushion, resulting in food shortages (Koloniaal Verslag, 1911).

The position of economic dominance of ethnic Chinese and fairly recognized. It can be seen, among others, is more likely for the average Chinese person to live in a house wall, has a car, get a good education and live in cities than in the indigenous population. No evidence of Chinese control of the Indonesian economy as the Netherlands before 1957. But in fact the Chinese are generally more affluent than the average native population.Bengkulu indigenous people's lives and the Chinese in the process of assimilation is influenced by several factors. Factors supporting the assimilation of tolerance, respect for foreigners and their culture, similarities in the cultural elements of society, mixed marriages.

The equation of cultural elements between indigenous people and the Chinese Bengkulu them in language, technology systems (architecture of the house), and livelihood systems (batik). The use of Malay language in daily life by the Chinese is their business to be able to mingle and socialize with the natives.The tendency of Chinese to settle in urban centers, the affected because the city center are usually also serves as a trading center and seat of government. So also in Bengkulu, the Chinese people generally lived in trading centers are located in downtown in an area of Chinatown. Netherlands Indies government deliberately put Chinese people in a settlement with the aim that the Chinese community is easy to be coordinated and support and assist the Netherlands in many respects. In Bengkulu area inhabited by many Chinese people, the Dutch East Indies government already provides a home to be occupied, which is commonly called the Chinese village. Until the reign of the Dutch East Indies, the majority of Chinese people in Bengkulu still living in certain cities, especially cities in the coastal region, as in the coastal town of Bengkulu.Various regulations have been made the colonial government to put the Chinese on a particular position. In District of Bengkulu, there are two systems of government that is indigenous and European territorial which sometimes overlap, but both remain under the authority of a resident. Legal issues concerning the civil status of Chinese people is the legacy of colonial times. Law and colonial administration in nineteenth century thought all Chinese people including those who were born in the Netherlands and the regions of the colony as the Dutch State subjects.

Research results revealed that the period of colonialism for centuries has bequeathed to Indonesia an economic structure dominated by foreign companies and Chinese traders. Large companies owned by Westerners, especially the Dutch dominated fields, such as plantations, mining, foreign trade, industry, and banking. Virtually all large companies are in the hands of the Dutch, while ethnic Chinese group that became master secondary sector intermediary between foreign companies with the natives. The group of Chinese merchants of this small industrial control and accommodate the small farmers as well as traffic control most activities of small traders. Not least because during the Dutch occupation, the Indonesian people are educated to become workers and civil servants only, while those given a chance and nurtured to become traders and businessmen are mainly Chinese class.

The Chinese companies engaged in the sector intermediaries such as a distributor, agent, and sales of commodities in the domestic trade in medium and small scale. In addition, Chinese private group is still in chartering a government monopoly of commodity sales, which in the nineteenth century tended to increase and expand. Among them is the increase in sales of opium or opium pacht the greater the volume and marketing areas to inland areas.

Archives / Documents
Door Afscrift E. Francis. 1829. A Commentative Digest of the Laws of the Natives of That Part of the Coast of Sumatra Immediately Dependent on the Settlement of Fort Marlborough and Practised in the Court of the Presidency. RI National Archives B/13

B: 2 / 5: Algemeen Verslag van de Assistant Resident Benkoelen Over de Jaren 1848 en 1849. ANRI: Bundle Bengkulu

B: 3 / 19: Administratief Algemeen Verslag van de Assistant Resident Benkoelen Over Het Jaar 1872. ANRI: Bundle Bengkulu

B: 3 / 20: Administratief Algemeen Verslag van de Assistant Resident Benkoelen Over Het Jaar 1873. ANRI: Bundle Bengkulu

Resident Assistant Koloniaal Der Verslag Over Het Jaar 1880 Benkoelen

Resident Assistant Koloniaal Der Verslag Over Het Jaar 1911 Benkoelen

Kort Overzigt Vanden Handel en te Scheepvaart Benkoelen Over de Manna. Junij 1878. ANRI: Bundle Bengkulu No. 4 / 33

Memorie van Overgave (MvO) Resident C. Van de Velde. Bengkulu. July 24, 1909. ANRI: Reel MvO 2e Serie No. 2

Memorie van Overgave (MvO) Resident W. G. Swaag. Rejang. May 9, 1913

Reference Books

Biok Tjhan, Siauw. 1984. Five-day embodiment of Fair Integration. Jakarta-Amsterdam: Lotus

B. Lapian, A & Soewadji. S (ed). 1984. Bengkulu Regional Social History. Jakarta: MOEC

Budiman, Amen. 1979. Chinese Muslim community in Indonesia. Semarang: Tanjung Sari

Brown, A. R. Racliffe. 1965. Function in Primitive Society. New York: The Free Press

Colombijn, Freek. 1994. Pathces of Bengkulu: History of an Indonesian Town In The Twentieth Century and The Use of Urban Space. Den Haag: News Publication

Djayadingingrat, Hoesin. 1983. Critics Top History of Banten. London: Djambatan

G. Tan, Mely. (Ed). 1979. Group of Ethnic Chinese in Indonesia: A Problem of National Unity Development. Jakarta: PT. Scholastic

Harfield, Alan. 1995. Bencoolen: A History of The Honourable East India Company's Barrison on the West Coast of Sumatra, 1685-1825. Wiltshire: A And Partnersip

Kartodirjo, Sartono. 1982. Approach Methodology of Social Sciences in History. New York: Scholastic

_______. & Suryo, Djoko. 1991. History of Gardening in Indonesian Socio-Economic Review. Yogyakarta: Aditya Media

Kathirithamby-Wells, J. 1965. The British West Sumatran Presidency 1760-1785. Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press

Koentjaraningrat. 1986. Methods Research Society. New York: Scholastic

_______. 1980. Introduction to Anthropology. New York: New Script

Kuntowijoyo. 1995. Introduction to History. London: Span

Marsden, William. 1999. History of Sumatra. Bandung: PT. Teens Rosdakarya

_______. The History of Sumatra. 1966. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press

Nahuijs, Colonel. 1828. Briven over Bencoolen, Padang, het Rijk van Menangkabaouw, Rhiouw, Singapoera, en Poulo Pinang. Breda: F.B Hollingerus Pijpers

Purcell, Victor. 1951. The Chinese in Southeast Asia. London: Oxford University Press

Ranni, M.Z. 1990. Resistance Against Colonialism and the Struggle for Indonesian Independence on Earth Enforcing Bengkulu. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka

Riklef, M. C. 1989. History of Modern Indonesia. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press

R. Vleming, J. 1989. Networks Corp. and Speculation: China Business Network. London: P.T. Temprit

Schrieke, B. 1960. Indonesian Sociological Studies 1. Bandung: Bandung Wells

Siddik, Abdullah. 1996. Bengkulu History 1500-1990. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka

Singarimbun, Masri & Effendi, Sofian. 1995. Survey Research Methods. London: LP3ES

Liem Siu, Yu. 2000. Prejudice Against Ethnic Chinese, an essence. London: Djambatan

Skinner, G. W. 1963. The Chinese Minority Indonesia. Ruth M.C. Vey (ed): New Haven

Soekanto, Soerjono. 1983. Some Sociological Theory About Community Structure. London: C.V. Hawk

Suryadinata, Leo. 1984. Peranakan Chinese politics in Java, 1917-1942. Jakarta: Pustaka Sinar Harapan

Twan Djie, Liem. 1995. Trade Intermediary Distribution of Chinese People in Java: An Economic Study. London: P.T. Gramedia Pustaka General

Untoro Drajat, Heriyanti. 1995. Trust The Chinese in Indonesia, Research Report. Jakarta: UI's Faculty of Literature

Van der Hoeven, Pruys. 1864. Een Woord Over Sumatra in Brieven Verzameld. Rotterdam: Martinus-Nijhoff

Van Kempen, P.N. 1861. Aadrijkskundig Statistisch Woorden en Boek van Nederlandsch-Indie. deel 1. Amsterdam

Vinne, van der L. 1843. Benkoelen zoo als het is, em de Benkoelezen zoo zijn als zij. TNI. Vijfde, Jaargang. deel. II. Batavia: Ter Land-Drukkerij

Vlekke, Bernand H.M. 1965. A History of Indonesian archipelago. The Hague: W. Van Hoeve ltd

Wibowo, I. 1999. Retrospection and Rekonlekstualisasi China Problem. Jakarta: PT. Scholastic

Wink, P. 1924. Eenige Archiefstukken Betreffende de Bevestiging van de Engelsche Factorij te Benkoelen in 1685. TBG. Deel. LXIV. Batavia: Albrecht & Co.

_______. 1924. De Bronnen van Marsden's Adatbesschrijving van Sumatra. BKI. Dell. 80. S-Gravenhage: Martinus-Nijhoff

Wuisman, J.J.J. 1985. Sociale Verandering in Bengkulu Een Cultuur-Sociologische Analyse. Dordrecht Holland: Foris Publications


Harfield, Alan. 1995. Bencoolen: A History of The Honourable East India Company's Barrison on the West Coast of Sumatra, 1685-1825. Wiltshire: A And Partnersip
J. M. Nas, Peter. "Introduction: A. General View On Indonesian Town "in Peter J. M. Nas (ed). 1986. The Indonesian City Holland. VSA: Foris Publications

Mackie, J.A.C. 1991. "The Role of Ethnic Identity of Chinese Economic and Indonesia and Thailand 'in Jennifer Cushman and Wang Bung Wu (ed). Identity Changes in The Chinese in Southeast Asia. Jakarta: Grafiti Public Library

_______. & Charles A. Coppel. "A Preliminary Survey of Chinese Problems in Indonesia" in B. P. Paul (ed). 1976. China Issues: Results of Scientific Research in Some Asian Countries and Australia. New York: Archipelago Works

Made Tony Supriatna, A. 1996. "Business and Politics of Capitalism and the Chinese group in Indonesia" in Lord of Chinese Economic and Business Strategy. London: Canisius

Siagian, Hayaruddin and Ibn Qoyim. "Inter-Ethnic Relations: A Case Study in the Region of Lampung" in Mely G. Tan (ed). 1999. Ethnicity and Social Conflict. London: PMP-LIPI

The Siauw Biap "Socio Economic Role of The Chinese in Indonesian 1820-1940" in Angus Madison & Ge Prince (ed). 1989. Indonesian Economic Growth in 1820-1940. Dordrecht-Holland: Foris Publications

William Skinner, G. "Group of Chinese minority in Indonesia" in Mely G. Tan. 1979. Group of Ethnic Chinese in Indonesia: A Problem of National Unity Development. New York: Scholastic

* Alumni of History Faculty of Science Department of Literature and Fine Arts UNS

0 comment:

Post a Comment