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Economic Structure of Sriwijaya

HISTORY OF CULTURE | Economic Structure of Sriwijaya | In administrastif site is located in the hamlet Karangberahi inscribed stones, Karangberahi Village, Sub Pamenang, Merangin District, Jambi Province. Inscribed stone hamlets bordering the River Base Merangin and Hope Village, and Karangberahi village in the south. In the west adjacent to the Village and Village Papit Karanganyar, on the east by the Village Jalatang and on the north by transmigration Itam daaerah Ulu, Kecamatan Pauh Veil and the District. The village itself astronomically Karangberahi at 2 o 28 'south latitude and 102 o 28' East Longitude. Karangberahi is one of the important sites from the kingdom of Srivijaya (VII century AD). 

Inscription Karangberahi findings indicate that this area was conquered kingdom of Srivijaya. Control over this region is one of Sriwijaya efforts to control economic resources, because this area is located on the main transport route interinsuler trading time. The lack of archaeological finds in this site and its surroundings had doubted the existence of this region in politics and the economy at that time. However, with the discovery of two remnants of the brick structure indicates that this region is not an empty area without residents. These findings and also jars in every corner of one of the remaining structure indicates that this location has become the location of the relatively crowded settlements of its time. Especially in the urn was found also pieces of gold, foreign pottery shards and gems.
As a kingdom, which developed trade economy, it is not strange if perkeonomian Sriwijaya has a different structure with an agrarian country. With reference to the structure of (government) Srivijaya kingdom advanced by Herman Kulke (1985) and combined with the theory of Sao Leong Heng in the development of trading systems in Southeast Asia, then in this paper attempts to reveal an important role in the region Karangberahi Srivijaya empire, especially in structure of the economy. As already known by the public during these that the kingdom of Srivijaya is the largest maritime empire that ever existed in Southeast Asia. As a maritime area must be equipped with networks of interconnected economy and supporting continuance. One form is believed to be net economic existence for this is the ports between (entrepot) a place to store and distribute commodities goods from one season to the next. These ports have an important role because the system during the voyage depends on the monsoon winds, the ships from India, China and the island states are usually sailed to Southeast Asia in a season and wait for the next season to return to his country (Wheatley, 1961).

Site and Environment
Karangberahi sites located in areas with varying degrees of slope ramps, ie between 2 - 15%, which is the lower slopes of the foothills. Land area is a hilly folds. While the ability of the land is AlbT with soil depth of more than 90 cm, fine-textured soil and are not under water, and no erosion. Land around the site are alluvial deposits and is located about 200 meters from the river (Trunk) Merangin and an altitude of 50 m above sea level. On the north side of the lake there are sites that are used as irrigation channels in the surrounding fields. Location of the lake is less than 50 meters from the remnants of a brick building which was founded in 1995 and about 500 meters from the building structure, discovered in 1994. With such topographical conditions Karangberahi sites located in areas suitable to serve as a settlement for physical environmental conditions are moderate and close to the body of water. Proximity to water bodies is very important here because the access they have access other than for agriculture and drinking water sources, also allows for transportation.
Apart from the royal inscriptions of Srivijaya, the site also found Karangberahi brick structure berdenah long rectangle measuring 5.26 meters x 1.96 meters. The longitudinal arrangement of bricks into the southeast-southwest, consisting of 2 to 3 layers. Brick size is relatively large compared to the bricks used for construction of temples in the complex Muarajambi enshrinement because brick sizes here 55 cm long, 36 cm wide and 17.5 cm thick. The large size of these bricks that allows pennyusunan bricks without adhesives, thus revealing an organized structure by horizontally laid brick. These bricks then compiled onto a single brick was on the other bricks (Purwanti, 1996:30 - 31).
In every corner of the brick building, there are four pieces of clay pots. One fruit pot located on the northeast corner when found still intact, while the other three pots in a cracked condition and no longer intact. The fourth pot diameter is between 36 to 46 cm. These pots are round with a convex base. Mouth hole diameter from 10.62 to 13 cm, while the lip has a thickness of 1.24 to 1.33 cm. Height 25.5 cm pot intact. At the time none was found to have closed.
The results of analysis of the soil wet contained within and outside the pot showed almost the same content. Soil obtained from the inside of the pot containing pyrite, quartz, gold, beads, laterite, broken pottery, chalk and charcoal. Gynecology ground outside the pot consisting of sand, stone gravel, charcoal, chalk, quartz and gold. Analysis of the content of the soil in these pots from the pot in the northeast corner and southeast, which was found relatively intact compared to the other pot-pot. Meanwhile, soil samples taken outside of the pot from the bottom of the pot from the southeast corner of the building (Sri Padmiarsi, 1994).
Gold obtained from within and outside Priok shaped granules and flakes. From 12.9 kg sebert land released from the pot in the southeast obtained 0.05 grams of gold, while the ground outside the pot with a heavy 6.25 grams 0.04 grams of gold collected by the grain size is relatively larger than that contained gold in the soil inside the pot.
Throughout the bead obtained from the content of the soil inside the pot. The beads are made of glass and mutisala. Glass beads are colored blue, while the beads maroon mutisala.
Location north of the discovery of the structure of the building, exactly in the mound cemetery, found also the remains of a brick structure in 1995. At the same location with the discovery of Srivijaya inscription found two layers of brick structures that allegedly was part of the walls of the building. One part of the brick structure is a corner of the building. At the top of the mound of earth where the discovery of the remains of buildings found heaps of soil consisting of: a layer of grayish black, the second soil layer of soil mixed with gravel, then the third layer of soil that is mixed with bits of ground brick, and contains a layer of soil mixed gravel, black layer of gray soil and so on until a depth of five feet from the ground ((Asylum PSP Sumbagsel, 1995:22 - 23; Purwanti, 2004). Also found also two brick-shaped pieces of hand bells around the mound.
In addition to archaeological data from excavations around the site, from the villagers Rantau Limau Manis Khadir named Haji 86 years of age can be seen that the veil River till now still have the traditional gold miners. This river is one of the Batang Hari River and is located upstream from the river Batang Merangin. On this site ever discovered two bronze Buddha statues from around the century-9-10 AD. The data strengthen the evidence so far that since time immemorial Sumatra island famous for its gold content, so the rise of the title "Island of Gold" (swarnadwipa). This potential is attractive to other areas outside it, especially for commercial circles that every time traffic in the Straits of Malacca and the opportunity to stop at the ports of the east coast of Sumatra.
Merangin District which is one area in Sumatra Island and tropical conditions of temperature and high humidity due to the sun's energy is one of the main factors that caused the forest with high diversity index. There are a variety of ecological niches in this area, which contains small trees; shrubs; herbs; plants inherent; plant climber; epiphytes; paraasit; and so forth (Anwar, et. Al., 1984: 92 - 94). High diversity index on flora and fauna in this area, including along the regional watershed (DAS) Batanghari, is an important natural resources since ancient times because of rough observed approximately 2500 species of plants, 7500 species in Sumatra has a value economic potential. Until now along the Batang Hari river basin are forests that produce lucrative trade of commodities, among other jerenang, jelutung wood, and rattan manau.
Sriwijaya Economic Structure
In his article entitled "Collecting Centers, Feeder Points and Entreport in the Malay Peninsula, circa 1000 BC - AD 1400", Leong Sau Heng mentioned a connection between the Southeast Asian region in particular and the Malays in Peninsular interinsuler trade, both between the Chinese, Arab and India with the local population (1990:17). However, the names are written in Chinese news sources are difficult to be identified with local names unless mentioned in primary sources such as inscriptions.
With reference to the number of foreign sources from the beginning until the colonial period was the political map of Southeast Asia is determined not only by the border regions (peripheral boundaries), but also by the expansion of the radiation from the central authority of power which lies in the interior areas along navigable and generally since Century 15 is located along the coast (thelittoral) and estuaries. Therefore, in writing, Sau Heng explained that at least seen from the map distribution of archaeological sites in the Malay Peninsula and on the basis of its findings can be determined chronology of the three stages in the development of trading systems in Southeast Asia.
The third stage is the collection center (Collecting centers), feeder points and entreport.Gatherers Center (Collecting centers) are regions or sites that are located either on the beach or along the river basins in the interior. As a collection center, the role is as a provider of local specific commodities (special local outlets for produce). The site is usually located in the main trade route or not. However, this area is generally located in areas where the product ekosone local goods were manufactured or produced. For instance located in the region which is rich in tin or gold mining like Lang or Kampung Sungai Kelang.
In Southeast Asia region, site or large commercial centers or known by the term entreport just started since the first century AD. Such sites are generally more easily recognizable because of its abundance of commercial artifacts that period, not only in terms of quantity but also in terms of its validity. On the Peninsula area for example, the area was known as a region entreport Pangkalan Bujang, at the mouth of the river Bujang Kedah region. Entreport port is generally located in estuaries.
The so-called feeder points in this connection is generally identified as a service center in a small local scale. Unlike entreport generally located in the path of long-distance trade in the strategic, but rather determined by the relationship of factors (distance easiest) to reach the producers. Therefore the site is thought to be the feeder points can be found in remote area near the river (river basin in the interior or the coast). Usually sites that are feeder points were marked by little evidence of outside cultural influences that entered.
With reference to the geographical conditions of Sumatra that is not much different from the peninsula, then the theory is Sau Heng can also be applied. The existence of three stages of development of trading systems can be linked to the Srivijaya kingdom structure model proposed by Herman Kulke (1985). Based on the assessment of Telagabatu inscriptions from the 7th century AD Herman Kulke states that the kingdom of Srivijaya was a theater that includes the central and subordinate areas of the conquest. Central region consists of kadatuan, vanua, and the village as a regional hinterland (samaryyada). Kadatuan is a palace or a place to live the king, surrounded byvanua which is a residential area. This is where people live and where standing religious buildings(temples). The merchants (vaniyaga) and skippers (puhavam) who come from outside the trade area vanua.
Based on these two theories can be obtained by an economic structure during the Srivijaya, which colleting centers located in the vanua; feeder feeder points points are in the hinterland(samaryyada); whereas entreport or kadatuan located in the central government. Thus the position of Sriwijaya according to Peter JM Nas is one of the city-state of the earliest and most important. Existence is based on its function as a royal emporium and merchantilis and work hard to trade monopoly and control of Jambi, Lampung, Malay Peninsula and Semenjung Kra.
This position allows for the geographical position of Sumatra nice to participate in international trade began to develop between India and mainland Southeast Asia since the beginning of AD era. News of China stated that customary in Kan-t'oli with custom in Cambodia and Campa. That means that for the Chinese people or their news sources, the third state in the same place. It can only happen if the three places it occurs internsif enough relationship. Naturally, the development of trade in two places in mainland Southeast Asia was also influential in Sumatra. Likely that the world trade in Sumatra since the beginning has been directly involved in trade with India extends to the south. At the time China opened to the results of Southeast Asia. Location of the Strait of Malacca to encourage trade in mainland Southeast Asia to a new place after the trade with India growing, particularly residents of Sumatra in the east coast, no longer lay in international trade. Therefore, if the kingdom of Sriwijaya developing economy based on trade is not a wrong choice.

Karangberahi and Role
Karangberahi site is located on the banks of the River (Batang) Merangin, which is one of the Batang Hari river basin. Batang Hari river basin extends from the upstream region located in the province of West Sumatra to the downstream located in Jambi Province. Batang Hari River and its tributaries are generally navigable and is important for peraian traffic between villages, river ports to the coastal towns and cities from the upstream to downstream. Traffic is most important, especially in areas along the river Batang and Batang TEMBESI, as can be navigated by using big boats and steamers. Meanwhile, tributaries to the navigable parts of the upper reaches by using small boats or rafts. With such conditions allows the area open to the entry of the flow of information and communication with the outside areas since time immemorial. Therefore, not surprisingly, along the Batang Hari river basin-often found the remains of the archaeological remains of different periods with different types and shapes. Archaeological remains of the remains, which is the evidence of past human activities along the Batang Hari river basin.
In a previous presentation mentioned that the Batang Hari river basin has the potential variety of potential biotic resources as a commodity. Commodity trading is usually obtained from the lowland forest ecosystem primary, manau such as rattan, resin, sap jerenang, and resin. Another type of biotic resources that directly support the continuity of life and human settlements, such as building materials and food sources.
Physically Karangberahi site is located approximately 200 meters from Merangin River and about 500 of the lake. 500 meters Distance to water bodies (rivers and lakes) for daily use and for water transport infrastructure was included in the estimated reach of human mileage at that time. With an environment that supports physical, it is not strange if there was found the remains, archaeological remains of sufficient importance. One of them is the curse inscription from the Sriwijaya kingdom.
Forest products are generally produced by the hunters and gatherers, did not really have a high sale value of regional trade and will be more meaningful form of goods produced by a group of people who have been organized. Similarly, people who have been organized in the interior generally will seek closer network and not have to follow the path of the river around him, but farther distance. In this way they can actually push the exchange rate between the center of things one with another center located in coastal areas (Christie, 1990:45).
Products from around the site include Karangberahi, gold, jelutung sap, resin, and rattan. As stated by Wolters, sail the sea's ability alone is not able to grow a trading power (Ibid., Pp. 135-155). In addition to the cruise capacity must also cultivate the trust of the world trade. The traders must believe that trade with it will be profitable. This belief would not necessarily caused by traders who are interested in the conditions provided, but it can also because there is no other alternative. Seems Sriwijaya can also develop a condition called lately. Thanks to a strong fleet he had mastered the regions as potential rivals, including the Karangberahi. In this way he deliver the goods merchandise to ports under their control. News from China can be concluded that Srivijaya was one of the most important trade centers of Southeast Asia with China.
Based on archaeological data are relatively small, but has biotic and abiotic resources is high, it can be assumed that this area has become one link in the trading system during the Srivijaya empire, namely as a service center in a small (feeder points). The findings of the brick structures and inscriptions prove that the area occupied by Karangberahi before Srivijaya is an important area with community organizations that are organized. Although located in a rural area, but Karangberahi have economic value and strategic importance for the continuity of the economic life of the kingdom of Srivijaya. An area economically valuable because it has rich natural resources, while an area of strategic votes based on their location kestrategisan, for example located on the banks of the river, sea, and others. Dikuasaainya areas with strategic and economic value, can be controlled Sriwijaya international trade and benefit from trade are abundant.
According Lapian (1992:3) Srivijaya kingdom is a kingdom of the river that requires a good relationship with residents in rural areas. The nature of the shaft pit - ilir (upstream-downstream) since the first ever color the prestige of a monarchy that relies on life on the river traffic. For the kingdom of Srivijaya maritime as absolutely necessary is "mastering" the people who can use a sea area as a source of income (Ibid.). So the population is not enough to build a maritime power; the more important is the number of people oriented to the sea. In that tribe who inhabit the sea outfall areas and islands off the coast of the main role.
If a country living from trade means that the sovereign must control the trade routes and the ports where the goods were stockpiled to be traded. Mastery of the trade routes and ports are automatically require direct supervision of the authorities. It is not surprising that the king of Srivijaya can not justify being unfaithful, even if only a few, including from his own son.
As a maritime nation trading, Sriwijaya has developed a tradition of royal diplomacy that led to the more metropolitan in nature. To be able to maintain its role as a trading nation, more needs Sriwijaya military force that can do the movement rather than a ekspedisioner agrarian country. A direct control over more territory than is absolutely necessary in an agrarian country, such as developing common in Java and provides the power and considerable freedom to the local authorities or-rakai it. Srivijaya kingdom economic pattern between the central government to subordinate the state of grace or a gift delivery directly, while the state subordinate to the central government as a sign of loyalty in the form of transfer of tribute.
Sriwijaya entreport for the country as a subordinate function as an intermediary to market the results of their ground in international trade. Economic patterns between central and inland areas of distribution of commodities through the river network. Commodity goods from point of origin was taken to the trade center of the smallest in the upstream (the meeting place branches of the creek). The function of trade centers are here to oversee the flow of commodity turnover in small units. Then transported to the commodity trading center located at the second meeting of the tributaries. The second trade center function is to oversee the flow of trade in and out through the region. Then the collected commodities transported by ship bigger towards the main port (Sriwijaya). The main port function is to oversee commodities coming and going from the whole territory. Meanwhile, the economic pattern of the state of Sriwijaya with foreign countries can be an offering with the intention of asking for protection.
The survival of Sriwijaya more dependent on the development of trade patterns, while certain patterns can not be fully mastered. As evidenced by the development of its history, when the Chinese people began to join trade in the southern region, the role of Sriwijaya reduced as the main base of trade between Southeast Asia with China. Since the XII century, Srivijaya was one of the places visited by Chinese merchants. This role diminished after the Chinese people bring their own needs to the country. Places of producing merchandise that had collected their goods to ports in the power of Srivijaya, no longer do so because the Chinese traders stop in their ports. Envoys from countries conquered Srivijaya in the Strait of Malacca along the coast, began to act as a country that directly gives tribute to the Chinese nation. So therefore they are considered to be commensurate with the Kingdom. The country is among other things Lamuri Kampe and North Sumatra (1993:72 - 73).

Karangberahi is one important site of the Srivijaya empire, which was marked by the discovery of prasassti curses, the remnants of building structures, and other findings. Keletakan sites close to the body of water, both rivers and lakes of this region allows for a proper location of settlements in the past. This was supported by the natural resources abundant enough in some sites, both in the form of mineral materials (gold) and forest products. This commodity is expected to make this area has Karangberahi economic position and both are on the road traffic straategis trade. At least archaeological findings obtained in this area does not mean that the area is isolated from other areas in politics and the economy in the past. The discovery of two structures of brick buildings and building components, others, as well as the inscription indicates that the site actually has Karangberahi important position during the Srivijaya and had a regular community-based organizations. The position is as a regional feeder points or collecting forest commodities. Until now, the waters along the stem Merangin tribal faction known as the living from the harvesting and gathering food. It seems people like the Kubu tribe has been there all the time. From this site then the commodity brought to the upper level, so ended up in the city state, which is at once a Sriwijaya port between.

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