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Brief History of Pasemah

HISTORY OF CULTURE | Brief History of Pasemah | Interesting illustration of where the people Pasemah ever written by JSG Grambreg, a government official Dutch East Indies, written in 1865 as follows:

.... Those who climb the Bukit Barisan of Bengkulu, and then set foot on the ground that the kingdom was so vast Palembang; and whoever stepped from the north Ampat Lawang (four gates of the country) to the beautiful plains of latitude, so he reached the foot of the western side of Mount Dempo, then surely he was in the land of Pasemah. If he walked around the foot of the volcano, is he arrived at the east side of the vast plateau of slightly curved toward the southeast, and if from there he went on further to the east again until the plateau ends in a row mountian where, from that side, formed a natural border between Pasemah an independent country and the Dutch East Indies territory ....

From the quote it seems that the time Pasemah area still are not in the Dutch East Indies colony. Military operations to conquer the Dutch own Pasemah long, from 1821 until 1867. Johan Hanafiah humanist South Sumatra, in the Foreword of South Sumatra book Against the 19th Century Colonial stated that the resistance of the surrounding Pasemah and this is the longest in the history of the resistance struggle in South Sumatra 19th century, lasted nearly 50 years.

Johan Hanafiah also stated that initially the area, especially the Europeans, not knowing who actually Pasemah people. The English, like Thomas Stamford Rafless a British war hero against the Dutch in Java (1811) and finally got a position in Bengkulu, with the rank of major (1817-1824) called the Passumah. However, raised impression is that people are Passumah people wild. In The British History in West Sumatra, which was written by John Bastin, stated that the bandits who do not know the law (lawless) and brave the ever attacking ground Passumah Manna district in 1797. It added that in 1818, England suffered two disastrous in the southern regions of war with the people Passumah and deaths due to smallpox.

Usage Passumah name as used by the British people apparently have also appeared in the Portuguese report much earlier. Mentioned in one Internet site that the Portuguese had landed in Pacem or Passumah (Puuek, Sumatra Island) in May 1524. However, from personal correspondence with Marco Ramerini and Barbara Watson Andaya, obtained confirmation that the report referred to in Portuguese it is Aceh, rather than as a known Pasemah in South Sumatra today. This is also indicated by the location itself Pacem is written in the 05_09 'North Latitude - 97_14' east longitude). Mount Dempo himself mentioned by Gramberg above 04_02 positioned 'South Latitude - 103_008' east longitude.

The name is now known Pasemah is actually more the fault of the Dutch pronunciation, according to Mohammad Saman, a humanist and elders there. The correct pronunciation is Besemah as still used by people who live there. However, now better known is the name Pasemah. That said, the emergence of the name is because the shock Besemah Puyang when Atong Youngest see a lot of fish "Semah" in a river that flows in the valley of Dempo. Puyang spoken by then was "Be-semah" which means there are plenty more fish in the river semah. It is also written in an ancient manuscript, entitled History of Latin beraksara Pasemah stored in the National Library in Jakarta. In this manuscript narrated that Atong Youngest to Palembangan, Muara Lematang. She went and checked the jungle which later named Paduraksa which means "new review". His wife, the Princess Senantan Buway, after washing the rice in the river, returned to land with a fish semah. So the land was later named by Atong Pasemah Youngest as Tana.

Youngest Atong was believed to be the ancestors of the Pasemah. According to the above manuscript, Puyang Pasemah are descendants of the Majapahit. He was one of eight children of a king of Majapahit who nicknamed the Queen Sinuhun. Gramberg himself also wrote this:

People Pasemah rigid and unwavering attitude when standing to assert that the grandfather's ancestors came from Java, and more than that, that he came from Majapahit, he was then told about the fairy tales (mythology) who lived in his circle.

Interesting to add that Gramberg also describes the most striking difference between the Malays Pasemah with plateau live nearby. According to him, the first Pasemah are rice farmers who build, install drainage and use of animals of burden. Thus, in the case of farm-level position higher than the surrounding Malays who only knows cultivation. In addition, the face looks more intelligence, more well developed body build, with soccer a more energetic actions. Then, with the pagan religion and the roots in terms of vocabulary used, Gramberg more confident with the theory that people Pasemah is entered ancient Javanese race.

As for paddy fields, ancient history manuscripts Pasemah also revealed the story of Sidi Keriya Puyang that invites people to make rice fields, so that people Pasemah then make endless fields. This again suggests that the first Pasemah enough time in the processing of agricultural land, and even rice fields.

About Atung Youngest Puyang, somewhat different from the story above, Rahman Effendi Martabaya (2004) mentions that in fact is Atung Youngest Crown Royal Rao in India, with the full name YM Sri Mapuli Atung Youngest. According to him, led Atung Youngest second navy of the Kingdom Rao sent in the year 101 AD after Saka/179 first force sent previously to Sumatra there is no news. In the writings were discovered there Martabaya river water / Ayik Besemah from the highlands of Bukitraja Mehendra Mahendra (Raje Bendare Hill) which flows into the West and the estuary of the River Lematang Pagar Alam area. This Raje Bendare hill till now still there, located in the district of Tanjung Sakti.

At this time, Pasemah known as the name of a tribe in the highlands around Mount Dempo (3159 m) and Bukit Barisan (400-900 m), South Sumatra. All around there are other tribes such as SEMENDO (cited stem from the same lineage), latitude, Gumay, Empat Lawang. However, sometimes, directly linked to Pasemah Lahat District. That is, Pasemah considered also include the tribes in the vicinity, such as the latitude). Pasemah itself, in some sources are divided into several sections, namely Pasemah Lebar, Ulu Pasemah Manna (south), Ulu Pasemah Latitude (Northwest side), turbid water Pasemah (located far behind the Bukit Barisan. The last three residents came from Width Pasemah who emigrated and to adapt to the surrounding areas of the former Sultanate of Palembang and the British colonies in Bengkulu. Pasemah Manna Ulu itself, the Dutch colonial period in Bengkulu Residency. Kecamatan Tanjung just a part of South Sumatra in 1948, after the election sound in a simple way to decide to become a part of or Bengkulu South Sumatra. However, the area seems most appropriate to refer to the existence of a border tribe Pasemah South Sumatra and Bengkulu.

Apart from that, Pasemah itself has a special place in archeological studies in connection with the relics of pre-history. As mentioned by an archaeologist Peter Bellwood of Australian National University (ANU), Pasemah Highlands is one of the central findings of prehistoric buildings are important in Indonesia. Pasemah megalithic buildings are mentioned very interesting and has attracted attention, since the year 1950. Various forms of stone sculpture known as The Art of Pasemah. In connection with the memorial stone in Pasemah, Dutch anthropologist Heine-Geldern has estimated that this is an indication has a close relationship with China of about 1-2 century BC, its resemblance to a similar heritage in a region in China. Some description of Victor Purcell (1965) Lewis is quoted as follows:

... Dr. Heine-Geldern in 1934 to explain stylistic similarities between the prehistoric rock carvings in the area Pasemah in southern Sumatra as the one on the tomb of China's General Huo-ping K'iu in Shensi Province China, which was made in 117 BC. This, he says, seems to indicate there are at least close relationship with China, which may have started there around the first and second century BC ...
Bellwood doubts in his conclusion that the relationship with China has occurred in the centuries that. According to him, Indonsia trade contacts with China may be very rare before the Tang Dynasty (618-906 AD). While estimates Mahruf Kamil Pasemah existing tribes around the early 700s. This is based on the assumption that the inscription Palas Pasemah in Lampung and 680 AD many had something to do with the Land Pasemah.

Writing on the part of the complete article Aloysius research Gunadi Brata (Research Institute of Atma Jaya University, Yogyakarta, October - 2005) entitled "Community Coffee Problematika Pasemah".

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