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A Cultural Heritage Society Neolithic

A Cultural Heritage Society Neolithic | HISTORY OF CULTURE | Step improvement of human life in terms of meeting the needs of life always coincide with the development of skills in making the tools more advanced. Increased kemampaun in making this equipment visible from the results found in the plant, was more advanced when compared with the hunt. Early cultivation in Indonesia began about the same time with the development of skills polish stone tools and pottery-making familiar.

Tradition polish stone tools have been widely known among the population kepuauan Indonesia.The evidence shows the Chronological heritage and its relationship with mainland Southeast Asia and East Asia. The tools are generally sharpened (diupam) is a stone axes and hatchets, which in some places is also done on arrowheads and spears pengupaman eyes. Ax and stone axes found scattered throughout the islands and is often regarded as a general guide of the plant in Indonesia.

Indonesia Discovery outside 

Outside Indonesia this kind of tool is found also in Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam , Khmer, China, Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, and Polynesia. In general, square-shaped elongated axes with square transection. All the parts diupam to pulp, except at the base as a bond stalk. Tajamannya made by grinding the end surface, the bottom edge sloping towards the end of the upper surface. thereby obtained form the sloping tajaman as seen in artificial tajaman contemporary sculpture. Size and shape vary, depending on its use. Such is the smallest sized Chisel length approximately 4 cm and The Longest about 25 cm is used for wood working. 

In Indonesia

Ax name comes from the square Von Goldern Heine, according to the cross-section of grass tools, which form a rectangle or trapezium-shaped, too. What is meant by square ax ax was not only square, but many other instruments of various sizes and a variety of purposes; which is a big ax or a hoe, and a little that is tarah, which is used for wood working. The tools were all the same shape, slightly Curved slightly, and given the shaft and tied to the arch. 

Ax square in Indonesia is mainly found in the region of Sumatra, Java, Bali, Nusan Tenggara, Maluku, Sulawesi and Kalimantan. Materials used to make most use square axes of flint and stone Kalcedon. Making these axes is estimated centered in places, from here spread to other places. This is based on the discovery of a square axes in some places that do not have the flint material, which is used as construction materials, while the center was found to produce a lot of quasi -rectangular axes have been given a rough shape but still yet refined. This Indicates that the ax-square-refined by its users rather than Creators. The centers estimate of a hatchet-making, among others in the square near Lahat (Palembang), near Bogor, Sukabumi, Karawang, Tasikmalaya (West Java), in Pacitan (Madison) and the southern slope of Mount Ijen (East Java). In the village near Bogor Pasirkuda found even as a Whetstone. 

Sites Place of Research 

Attention to the ax and ax terupam smooth in Indonesia began to be given around 1850 by several experts from Europe. At that time, the study materials only from finding out the less obvious age or origin. Collection undertaken by a private association (between 1800-1850) who named Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetwnschappen. Collection of this association is stored in the National Museum, Jakarta. This is actually inspired by GE Rumphius famous essay published in 1705 in Amsterdam, called D Amboinsche Rariteitenkamer. In the book there are sections that discuss the stone tools made by the alleged nature. This opinion is the same as the opinion of those most at that time, and also present among the population, who consider dental stone axes as lightning or thunder teeth. 

After writing Rumphius, the attention to Prehistoric objects were gone again. Intermittent for about a half a century , then emerged a few opinions from C. W. Swaying and Vrolik (1850), and C. Leemans (1852). Leemans's book is the first work that provides good exposure of the stone tools of Prehistoric in Indonesia. At that time he served as director of the antiquarian museum in Leiden. His work is based on a collection of Prehistoric objects sent from Indonesia by his partner, Swaying. Things like that done by JJ van Limburg Brouwer that the results published in 1872. Fifteen years later (1887), published by CM Pleyte which basically provides an overview of the stone age, especially of the ax and hatchet shaped square in Indonesia and pioneering ideas towards the implementation of the classification and distribution of these objects. Basics of this idea seems to inspire the work of two prominent scholars Callen PV van Stein, Fels and It von Heine Geldern in his discussion of the distribution and chronology of axes and hatchets oval in Indonesia that began in the 1920s. It is Unfortunate that the efforts of Pleyte valuable and previous researchers were only based on the resources obtained without Archaeological Excavation, but rather rely on the findings that appeared on the surface. Furthermore, developing a research intensive excavations Callenfels Stein owed.

Callenfels Stein tried to construct the chronology of stone tools from the period of cultivation, especially on the basis of the types of axes and hatchets square. On the basis of four levels of development Achieved. Each level is represented by certain forms. The oldest level has the simplest form and the next levels showed more advanced development. The most recent levels, in his opinion, brought by the people who use the Indonesian language. Comments like this, especially on the basis of typology approach , at the level of adult studies, less convincing because it is not accompanied by statigrafi completeness of data. 

Our knowledge about the plant in Indonesia is very limited because of Archaeological data has not been revealed in full. Research of new excavations, excavations carried out in several places in Java and Sulawesi. From other places, the material is only a loose findings collected from the surface soil at the time to do field survey or as a result of purchases of the population. Data processing becomes difficult because the original context of the soil layer is conceived him or his relationship with the level of other cultures can not be followed exactly. 

Research conducted in Sulawesi in Karama River in villages Sikendeng, Minanga Sipakka, and Kalumpang. excavations at Sikendeng (a village located a few kilometers from the Estuary) is carried out by AA Cense and Stein 1933.Hasil in Callenfels excavations consisted of rectangular axes and a number kereweng plain (not trimmed). Furthermore, on September 25 to October 17, 1933, Stein went Callenfels lulu penelitiannva River at Karama (93 km from the mouth) near the village of Kalumpang, on a Kamasi small hill. Callenfels Stein noted the findings of several square terupam ax kereweng and soft-kereweng plain and some are decorated in a number of quite a lot, intermediate axes (axes candidate), an ax rough shoulders, fragments of stone bracelet, honed arrowheads, stone knives or knife blades sloping stone bertajaman showing similarities with the findings in Tembiling (Malaysia ), and some perimbas ax. 

Because of the importance of the discovery in Kalumpang it, HR. van Heekeren re digging in the same place in 1949 (23 August-September 1949). excavations carried out on the southern slope of the hill Kamasi, while digging Callenfels Stein on the slope to the east. Heekeren said in his report that the state has been destroyed as a result of agricultural activities are carried out repeatedly by the local population. Layers of soil containing Prehistoric cultures have been mixed in with the others.Here he found a mix of tradition with the tradition of square ax ax oval, but the development of each tradition are in Kalumpang not be known with certainty because of the cultural layers that represent the two traditions have been mixed. "In addition to the ax of public square, in Kalumpang also found an ax-shaped type of violin and a simple stone axes. The ax common form made of rock Flint (chert) and gray-green, while the axes of slate violin. Excavation Heekeren also produced arrowheads and spear a sharpened eyes, would-be ax, a bark beater, and a phallus symbol Bendy of terracotta. 

Heekeren also found a site that was quite rich in Prehistoric discovery in Minanga Sipakka (1 km west Kalumpang). River Cliffs of miscarriages in Minanga Sipakka Karama, he managed to find oval, axes, axes candidates, a bark at, and a number of plain and decorated kereweng. This discovery occurred while he was on his way home from Kalumpang. Heekeren suspect that the findings in ternuan Minanga Sipakka comes from an older period. But it kind of rectangular axes is not found in this place. 

To obtain information about the age of the findings in Kalumpang, WF van Beers has conducted geological research. On the basis of the results of the study estimated Kalumpang very young age, ie 1000 years ago. Heekeren placed approximately at least 600 years ago and regarded as an example of cultural retardation as a result of social attitudes Tightly isolated from the outside world. 

excavations in Java conducted by Heekeren on a site Kendenglembu (Banyuwangi) in 1941. This place was first discovered by W. Wijland and J. van Buurman in the year 1936. Because the results of excavations Heekeren and notes have been lost due to a state of chaos as World War II, it was Decided to conduct excavations in 1969. Re Excavation was conducted by the Institute of National Antiquities and heritage under the leadership of RP. "Soejono." 

excavations yielded two cultural layers rather obvious limits. The first layer (the top) contains the findings of the historical layers include kepeng consists of money, fragments of ceramics, pottery, decorated pottery (from the Majapahit), and brick fragments. The second layer (below the first layer) contains the square axes, kereweng plain kereweng-red colored, some half axes, stones decorated with shavings, and flakes of stone to not be found urnumnya as a tool. Finding objects of the second layer it provides clues about the workshops and residential farming community. 

Subsequent investigations of field research in some areas of discovery and trial Excavation. Trial Excavation has been done in Leles (Garth District, West Java) in 1968, and in the Kelapadua (Cimanggis, Kabupetan Bogor) in 1971. Leles not much produce axes. Leles Ax from almost all from the findings found out at the time of the survey. Age is more prevalent form of obsidian tools that show many similarities with obsidian tools from Bandung.

Location rectangular axes findings in DKI Jaya, among others: in Kampung Kramat, Cililitan Sub-District, District Kramat Jati; studied by the team Teguh Asmar, Dirman Surachmat, and Made Sutavasa, in 1968. This research is then conducted again in 1971, 1977, 1979, 1980, and 1982. The findings of kereweng, fragments, axes, flakes, stone smoke, and 4 axes numbered square pieces.Site Pejaten, Kelurahan Pasar Minggu District Pejaten. This site excavated by the Museum Department of Jakarta in 1973 and 1974. The findings of kereweng, fragments and intact square-ax, ax mold fragments of burnt clay, bronze bracelets and rings, fragments of iron tools, iron Slag, and spheres of clay, fragments of bowls footed, grindstone, and shale. 
Site Condet, Balekambang Sub-District, District Kramat Jati, investigated by the Office of Museum Jakarta in 1976, 1977, 1979, and 1980. The findings of kereweng, grindstone, flakes, fragments of rectangular axes, metal fragments, and soil spots. Tanning West, Western Cape of District, Sub Jagakarsa, investigated in 1983 by the Office of Museum Jakarta. Flash findings of kereweng, grindstone flakes, mold clay, iron Slag, mollusks, and the rest of the animal bones. Pondok China, Kelurahan Pondok China, Sub-Beji, Depok. Research conducted by the Museum Department in 1984. Findings in the form of flakes, obtained from the population ax 5 square fruit. 

Place of discovery in Klapadua located on the banks of the river had been destroyed Ciliwung as a result of erosion and agricultural activities by the population. Time-remaining few are found in the Excavation. Most of the objects findings come from the ground. However, it can be assured that once inhabited Klapadua humans. Ax fragment was found scattered on the ground. Hone stones and pottery fragments found in berthas not surface until the bank. This place is suspected as Dwellings which workshops and produces axes. This is happening in other places ¬-West Java, as in Purwakarta, Tasikmalaya, and around Bogor. 

Northern coast of West Java, which extends from Tangerang to Rengasdengklok also produces many square axes. Collection of this area is generally a basil purchase from people who did the  Excavation wild or found by accident while working the fields, village roads, or where the findings garden. place-Rengasdengklok the beach lies along the Bekasi watershed, Citarum, Ciherang, and Ciparage. The elements of the younger showed more influence in these places and then affect the hinterland through the fourth river. 

Wind Sand Site, Village Bland, Cibungbulan district, Bogor Regency studied since 1971-1975, and 1991-1995 by the National Archaeological Research Center. "The findings of various metal artifacts, stone artifacts, beads, and square axes, fauna, charcoal, and so on. 

Panumbangan Site, Jampang Central District, Sukabumi Regency, in 1954 Erdbrink been doing research in this area and find the arrows, flakes, and drill. In 2000 and 2003 teams from the National Archaeological Research Center doing research in this area. Findings in the form of flakes, colon rectangular axes, The Residents found a few square axes. Site CIPARI, CIPARI Sub-District, District CIGUGUR, Kuningan District, studied by T. 1972-Asmar 1978.Hasil findings of grave stone coffin, metal artifacts, pottery, stone bracelets, and square axes. Limbasari Site, Sub Bobotsari, Purbalingga, investigated by the Yogyakarta Archaeological Center in 1981-1983. Its findings in the form of rectangular axes , axes candidates square, a tool flakes, stone hit, and a Whetstone. 

Tipar Ponjen, Ponjen Sub-District, District Karanganyar Purbalingga, Examined in 1984. The result of the rock band's material, stone bracelet fragments, fragments of candidate axes square, rectangular axes, grindstone, stone chips, and rocks. "Ngerijangan site, Sooka Village, Sub PUNUNG, Pacitan District, since the early 19th century has been explored by the experts, among others, Koeningswald, Marks, Flathe and Pfeiffer, Verstappen, Balasz, Sartono, Soejono, Tweedie, Movius, Heekeren, and Barstra. Research conducted primarily at the site Padangan, Ngerijang, Sengon, and Ngerijangan. Hundreds of pieces of Flint as a waste product axes making square and arrowheads found scattered. The main findings of this site is rectangular axes, the candidate axes, arrowheads, potential arrowheads, and flakes. 

Type And Of The Shape 

Talking about a piece of equipment, of course we will not be separated from the name of a basic form, there are several variations that we know of rectangular axes. The most common variation is "belincung", ie high ax back, because it forms the back of a triangular cross-cut, in terms of five, or half circle. Belincung and axes are generally made of semi-precious rock type and classified the most beautiful objects in the treasury of stone axes in the world. This variation is usually found in Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan, and Bali. Belincung found also in the Malay Peninsula and the term used for this kind of thing is part ax. berpenampang Type latitude ax semicircle with the bottom line is more or less concave by Heekeren classified as a type of "ax Shields", because its shape resembles an oval shield. These types of axes found mainly in Java and outside Indonesia. These forms are also found in eastern Polynesia. Other variations have been found in the Indonesian archipelago as a freelance findings and there were not so much. 

That said, the most common variations of the square is the ax ax found in Java, Sumatra, and Bali. In addition, there are other variations such as the shoulder ax, ax stairs, roof ax, the ax of the violin, and axes plane . The forms of this variation is found in several regions and is very limited in number.Discovery places especially in the north and east areas of the Indonesian archipelago. Ax variations of the square is outside the instructions and the forms show similarities with other forms of outside Indonesia in areas that spread from China through the island in Indonesia to the north of East Polynesia. characteristic variations can be described as follows. 

Ax simple shoulder. This species is found in Kalumpang special. Stems Roughly prepared and organized, as well as in sesimetris no ax handles common shoulder spread in mainland Asia.Pengupaman done on some of the tools, especially in the tajaman. Type of simple axes are also found in China (Sechwan, Kwantung), Japan, Taiwan, and Philippines (Botel Tobago) . 

Ax stairs only a few fruits found in Sulawesi, Indonesia but beyond this type of spread in South China, the east coast of mainland Southeast Asia, Taiwan, and Philippines. The base on the surface of the base means is made lower, as if a ladder down a level, in order to solidify the bond at the stem. A different form of a very rare and are also found in Sulawesi is gigir ax. gigir  a line parallel to the width of the base axes on the upper surface is made by pounding the rock until it gigiran reached form.Such variations have been found on the islands of Taiwan, Hoifu (Hong Kong), Luzon, and New Zealand.

Ax roof spreads in East Java, Bali and the Moluccas. Outside of its kind found in Indonesia of East Polynesia. The tool is thick with both sides of the side sloping down toward the surface, forming a Trapezoid-shaped transect. 

Ax violin Kalumpang found only in conjunction with a simple stone axes. Both sides of the concave side so that the instrument resembling a violin. Lintangnya sectional slightly oval shape.Pengupaman Minimally conducted on the surface of a tool, especially in tajaman. This type of tool is also in Japan, Taiwan, and Botel Tobago. 

Aa plane. This means a long form with a rectangular cross-cut the sides convex or nearly circular cross-section lintangnya, tajamannya sunken below. This type of axes are generally large and only a few small. Large may be used to trim the tree trunks to make Canoes. This tool is found in East Java and Bali. This type of tool there is also in New Zealand and in eastern Polynesia.

Several other interesting variations are shaped stone axes and hatchets particular square is influenced by the form of bronze axes. Ax specially shaped shoulder has a long handle, sunken shoulders, eyes short axes, and the tajaman convex and bevelled edges. One of these variations found in Bogor (West Java), yellowish brown and the other was found in Kalumpang, the color black.Ax who received the influence of bronze axes show a widening tajaman, exceeding the size of his own ax neck. This limited variation found in West Java (about Tangerang and Jakarta) and in Central Java (Gunung Kidul). 

From these findings it can be seen spread out square axes, including the forms of variation in Sumatra (Bengkulu, Palembang, Lampung), Java (Jakarta, Bogor, Cibadak, Bandung , Tasikmalaya, Cirebon, Pekalongan, Banyumas, Semarang, Kedu, Yogyakarta, Wonogiri, Punung, Surabaya, Madura, Malang, Besuki), Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Bali, Solor, Adonara, Ternate, Moluccas, and Sangihe Talaud. Among these places there are can be approximated as ax workshops in the village square as Bungamas, Palembang (between Lahat-High Ridge), in Karangnunggal (Tasikmalaya), in the village of Sand Horse (Bogor), in a mountainous area near Karanganyar Karangbolong (Central Java), and in the Punung near Pacitan (East Java). 

If we follow the discovery of these axes, it can be said that the types of rectangular axes widespread in the Indonesian archipelago, especially in the western islands. One thing we must remember is that the square axes has made his own in a few places that provide the raw materials area. Ridge axes generally showed perimping-perimping and fault-fracture on proving tajaman intensive use.Axes found in intact allegedly had a magical function or used as an object of exchange in a simple trading system. 

Installation of the shaft

If at the time of paleolitikum use of stone axes dipenggang directly by hand, using other tools tampa.Another case with Neolithic times, they are at that time was known as the shaft material used to bind an ax and used as handles. How to pair your eye on the shaft axes is by entering the direct object in a specially made hole on the tip of the stem or the pair's eyes to the handle of the ax and the additional rectangle attached to the handle anyway. In both these ways, the eyes paired vertical axes.

Adding a tool of use of stone ax is an innovation that could be developed by humans in Prehistoric times. They continue to Innovate to produce a better and more efficient, including comfort in use.stem or handle of an ax-based possibilities of wood and the like . Timber they form such a way that is easy to install an ax or hatchet eye and easy to square the hold. 


Bellwood, Peter. 2000. Prehistory of the Indo-Malaysian Archipelago. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama. 
Harsrinuksmo, Bambang. 2004. Kris Encyclopedia. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama. 
Driwantoro, Dubel, et al. 2003. "Potential Archaeological remains of the remains, the island of Nias, Prov. North Sumatra ". Jakarta: Research Center Arkenas and IRD (not published). 
Poesponegoro, Marwati Djoened and Nugroho Notosusanto. 2008. Sejarah Nasional Indonesia I (Prehistoric Age in Indonesia). Jakarta: Balai Pustaka. 
Soekmono. 1990. Pengantar cultural history of Indonesia 1. New York: Doubleday. 
Soejono, RP (ed.). 1990. Indonesia's National History I. Jakarta: Ministry of Education and Culture.

1 comment:

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