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Biografhy Of Srivijaya Kingdom

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Biografhy Of Srivijaya Kingdom | HISTORY OF CULTURE | The knowledge about the history of Srivijaya in the early newborn of the 20th century AD, when George Coedes write essay titled Le Royaume de Crivijaya in 1918 AD Actually, five years before that, ie in 1913 AD, Kern has published Inscription City Limestone, a relic of Srivijaya inscription found on the island of Bangka. However, at that time, Kern still considers Sriwijaya name listed on the inscription is as the name of a king, because Cri usually used as a designation or title of king. In 1896 AD, the Japanese scholar Takakusu translate the works of I-Tsing, Nan-hai-Kuei-chi-ch'uan fa-nai into English under the title A Record of the Budhist Religion as Practised in India and the Malay Archipelago.

However, in the book there is no name of Srivijaya, which is only Shih-li-fo-shih. From translation City Kapur inscription containing the name of Srivijaya and I-Tsing's work containing the name of Shih-li-fo-shih, Coedes later determined that, is the name of a kingdom of Sriwijaya in South Sumatra. 

Furthermore, Coedes also provides that, where the capital of Srivijaya is Palembang, with rests on the supposition Groeneveldt in the essay, Notes on the Malay Archipelago and Malacca, Compiled from Chinese Sources, which states that, San-fo-ts'I is Palembang. Other sources, namely Beal their opinions in 1886 that, Shih-li-fo-shih is a region located on the shores of the Musi River, near Palembang town now. From this opinion, then emerged a tendency among historians to regard as the center of the kingdom of Sriwijaya in Palembang. 

Other sources that support the existence of Palembang as the center of the kingdom is the Telaga Batu inscription. This inscription plate-shaped stone near pentagon, on top of it there are seven head of a cobra, to form a small bowl with a spout (small mouth place out water) underneath. According to archaeologists, these inscriptions are used for implementation of the ceremonial oath of loyalty and obedience of the official candidates. In the procession, officials sworn in drinking water that flowed into the rock and out through the spout. As a means to persumpahan ceremony, the inscriptions were usually placed in the center of the kingdom. Because it was found in the vicinity of Palembang in 1918 AD, then allegedly was the center of the kingdom of Sriwijaya in Palembang. 

Another clue which states that Palembang was the center of the kingdom was also obtained from the findings of ceramic goods and pottery at the site Gutters Kikim, Cape Rawa, Bukit Siguntang and Kambang Unglen, all in the region of Palembang. Ceramics and pottery is the tool used in everyday life. These findings indicate that, during the first, in Kilkenny there is an ancient settlement. This conjecture is strengthened by the results of aerial photo interpretation in the area west of Palembang city, which describes the forms of ponds and canals. Ponds and canals that form regularly are likely man-made, not the result of natural processes. From the findings of ceramics and the canals, then the archaeologists alleged that Palembang was the center of the kingdom grew stronger. 

As the center of the kingdom, the condition when it is mendesa Palembang (rural), unlike other royal centers found in mainland Southeast Asia, such as in Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar. The main ingredient used to make buildings in the city center of Srivijaya is wood or bamboo that easy to get around it. Therefore, it is easily damaged materials consumed time, there is no remaining buildings can be found again. If anything, the remaining settlements with timber construction can only be found in the swamp or river banks are submerged in water, not in downtown, like in this site Plancu Edge, Batanghari regency, Jambi. There is a building made of brick or stone materials, but only a sacred buildings (religious), as found in Palembang, on the site Gedingsuro, Angsoka Temple, and Mount Siguntang, which is made of brick. Unfortunately, the remaining buildings that are found are only the foundation course. 

Along with the development, more and more data is found regarding the history of Srivijaya. In addition to the City Kapur inscription, also found inscriptions Coral estrus (discovered in 1904 AD), Telaga Batu (found in 1918 AD), Kedukan Hill (found in 1920 AD) Talang Tuo (discovered in 1920 AD) and the New Boom. Among the inscriptions on the top, the inscription Lime City is the oldest, bertarikh 682 AD, tells the story of the sacred journey of Minanga Dapunta Hyang by boat, along with two laksa (20,000) troops and 200 crate supplies, and 1213 foot soldiers. This trip ends at Mukha-p. In these places, then set up Wanua Dapunta Hyang (township) that is named Sriwijaya. 

In the inscriptions Talang Tuo who bertarikh 684 AD, is mentioned about the construction of the park by Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa for all beings, named Sriksetra. In the park, there are trees whose fruits can be eaten.  The data are enriched by Chinese and Arab news. Chinese sources most often cited are the notes I-Tsing. 

He was a Buddhist pilgrim from China who has visited Sriwijaya several times and had resided for some time. Visit I-The first sting was the year 671 AD In her notes mentioned that, while there are more than a thousand Buddhist monks in Sriwijaya. The rules and ceremonies such as Buddhist monks with the rules and rituals performed by Buddhist monks in India. I-Tsing stay for 6 months in Srivijaya to learn Sanskrit, after that, then he went to Nalanda, India. After a long study at Nalanda, I-Tsing back to the Srivijaya in the year 685 and lived for several years to translate Buddhist texts from Sanskrit into Chinese. Other Chinese records mention about Sriwijaya envoy who came regularly to China, which last was in 988 AD 

In another source, namely the Arab records, called Srivijaya Sribuza. Mas'udi, a classical Arab historians write notes about the year 955 AD Srivijaya In the note, described Srivijaya was a great empire, with the army very much. Sriwijaya crops are camphor, aloes wood, clove, sandalwood, nutmeg, cardamom, gambier and several other crops. 

Of the foreign records, we know that the kingdom of Srivijaya is great in his time, with the region and extensive trade relations to Madagascar. A number of other evidence in the form of statues, stupika, as well as other inscriptions increasingly asserted that, in his time the kingdom of Srivijaya is having good communication with merchants and priests in China, India and Arabia. This may only be done by a great empire, influential, and calculated in the region. 

In the 11th century AD, Srivijaya began to decline. In the year 1006 AD, Srivijaya was attacked by Dharmawangsa from East Java. This attack was successfully repulsed, even Sriwijaya able to do a counter-attack and succeeded in destroying the kingdom Dharmawangsa. In the year 1025 AD, Srivijaya had an attack that crippled the kingdom Cola, India. Nevertheless, the attack has not been able to eliminate Srivijaya from the earth. Until the beginning of the 13th century AD, Srivijaya was still standing, though the power and influence has been very much reduced. 


One way to expand the influence of the kingdom is to conduct a marriage with another kingdom. This is also done by the ruler of Srivijaya. Dapunta Hyang in power since 664 AD, married with Sobakancana, second daughter of the king of the Kingdom of Tarumanegara, Linggawarman. This marriage gave birth to a son who becomes the next king of Srivijaya: Dharma Setu. Dharma Setu later had a daughter named Goddess Tara. This daughter later he wed with Samaratungga, kings of Old Mataram Kingdom from Dynasty dynasty. Goddess of marriage Setu with Samaratungga, then born Bala Putra Dewa who became king in Srivijaya of 833 to 856 AD Here is a list of genealogy of the kings of Srivijaya
  • Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa (Inscription Kedukan Hill 683, Talang Tuo, 684).
  • Cri Indrawarman (news China, 724 years).
  • Rudrawikrama (news China, in 728, 742).
  • Vishnu (inscription Ligor, 775).
  • Maharaja (Arab news, the year 851).
  • Balaputradewa (Nalanda inscription, 860).
  • Cri Udayadityawarman (news China, 960 years).
  • Cri Udayaditya (news China, 962 years).
  • i Cudamaniwarmadewa (news China, in 1003, the inscription of Leiden, 1044).
  • raviyayatunggawarman (inscription Leiden, 1044).
  • Cri Sanggaramawijayatunggawarman (Chola inscription, 1044).
  • Administration Period 

Srivijaya kingdom ruled from the 7th century to early 13th century AD, and reached the golden age in the era of government Balaputra Gods (833-856 AD). Royal setback is related to the entry and spread of Islam in Sumatra, and the emergence of power Singosari and Majapahit in Java. 

Regional Power 

Historically, kerasaan Srivijaya controlled the western part of the archipelago. One of the factors that cause Sriwijaya can master the entire western part of the archipelago is the collapse of the kingdom of Fu-nan in Indochina. Previously, Fu-nan is the only holder of the reins in the territorial waters of the Strait of Malacca. Another factor is that Srivijaya naval force capable of mastering the trade traffic between India and China. With a large fleet strength, Sriwijaya then expand the territory up to the island of Java. In another source said that, Srivijaya power to Brunei on the island of Borneo.

From the inscriptions found in Lime City JK Van der Meulen on Bangka Island in December 1892 AD, obtained clues about the kingdom of Srivijaya that Java is trying to conquer Earth. Although not explained where the region is the Bhumi Java in the inscriptions, some archaeologists believe, that meant that Java Bhumi is the kingdom of Tarumanegara on the North Coast of West Java. Apart from the contents of the inscriptions, Srivijaya empire spread also can be known from inscriptions location Sriwjaya these relics. In the area of Lampung found inscriptions Pasemah Palas, in Jambi is Coral lust, in the Pacific is the City of lime, in Riau have Takus Estuary. All this shows that these areas once controlled by Srivijaya. Other sources have said that, Srivijaya power actually reaches the Philippines. This is evidence that, Srivijaya had controlled most of the archipelago. 

Governance Structure 

The highest authority in the kingdom of Srivijaya held by the king. To become king, there are three requirements are:
  1. Samraj, meaning sovereign over his subjects.
  2. Indratvam, meaning rule as Lord Indra who always gives the welfare of its people.
  3. Ekachattra. Eka means one and chattra means umbrella. This word means capable umbrella (to protect) the entire population.
  4. Equation showing the king with the god Indra in the Srivijaya king has the power that is transcendent. 

Unclear how the structure of government under the king. One aide called explicitly only Senapati who served as military commander. 

Life on Economic, Social, Cultural 
As a huge empire embracing Buddhism, the Sriwijaya has developed a climate conducive to developing the Buddhist religion. In traveling I-Tsing notes mentioned that, at that time, there are a thousand priests in Srivijaya. In his first trip, I-Tsing had resided for six months in Srivijaya for studying Sanskrit. I-Tsing also recommend, if a Chinese pastor wanted to learn to India, you should learn first year or two years in the Fo-shih (Kilkenny), then studied in India. Upon their return from Nalanda, I-Tsing settled in Srivijaya for seven years (688-695 AD) and produced two major works of the T'ang Ta-yu-ku-fa-kao-seng-chuan and Nan-hai chi-Kuei- -nei-chuan-fa (A Record of the Budhist Religion as Practised in India and the Malay Archipelago), which finished writing in the year 692 AD This shows that, Srivijaya was one of the important Buddhist religious center at the time. 

Until the beginning of the 11th century AD, the kingdom of Srivijaya is still the center of Mahayana Buddhism studies. In its relations with India, the kings of Srivijaya build Buddhist sacred buildings in India. This fact is stated in two inscriptions, the inscriptions of King Dewapaladewa of Nalanda, which is thought to have originated from the 9th century AD, and the inscription of King Rajaraja I. numbered from the year 1044 AD and 1046 AD 

The first inscription mentions about King Balaputradewa from Suwarnadwipa (Sriwijaya), who built a monastery, while the second inscription mentions about King Kataha and Srivijaya, Marawijayayottunggawarman who gave gifts to a village dedicated to the Buddha residing in the monastery Cudamaniwarna, Nagipattana, India. 

In the field of trade, the kingdom of Srivijaya has a very good trade relations with merchants from China, India, Arabia and Madagascar. This can be ascertained from the findings of China's currency, ranging from the period of the Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD) to Ming Dynasty (14-17 centuries AD). In connection with the commodities being traded, the Arab news from Ibn al-Fakih (902 AD), Abu Zaid (916 M) and Mas'udi (955 AD) mentions some of them, namely clove, nutmeg, cardamom, pepper, areca nut, wood aloes , sandalwood, camphor, ivory, tin, gold, silver, ebony, Sapan wood, spices, and sea turtles. These goods are purchased by foreign merchants, or bartered with porcelain, cotton and silk fabrics. 


1. Slamet Muljana, Srivijaya, Yogyakarta: LKIS 
2. D.G.E. Hall, History of Southeast Asia. Delhi: National Business. 
3. Indonesia National Encyclopedia 
4. Team University of Riau, History of Riau, Yogyakarta: ideology Nusa Karya 
5. Rakaryan Sukarjaputra, Compass: June 29, 2001 
6. Wikipedia

Islamic Culture In Indonesia

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Islamic Culture In Indonesia | HISTORY OF CULTURE | The spread of Islamic culture in Indonesia. Indonesian people have high ability in doing akulturisasi culture. This is evidenced by the success of the Indonesian community in mengakulturisasi Hindu-Buddhist culture and the later, Islam. Important note, the aspects of Hindu-Buddhist culture that is applied in Indonesia is not "really similar" to what is prevailing in India. Hindu-Buddhist culture that has experienced sinkretisisasi authentic local culture that flourished in Indonesia.

Sinkretisisasi this happens, as eg, the characterizations puppet. In the Indonesian wayang, there are figures of Indian "indigenous" as Yudhishthira, Arjuna, Bima, or figures such Kurawa Duryudana, Dursasana, Sangkuni, or Drona. However, once implemented in Indonesia, emerging figures such as Semar, Gareng, Petruk, Bagong or all of which are known as clown-servants. The characters are played by clown-servants had a spiritual dimension and ability that exceeds the skill of Indian puppet. 

This cultural Sinkretisisasi ensued when the spread of Islamic culture all over the island archipelago. Islam who later implicated in the archipelago has a number of newness when implemented on Indonesian soil. This paper will make a short trip in to see the influences of Islam on the local culture that flourished in Indonesia. 

The entry of Islam into Indonesia 

Islam developed through the intermediary of Arabic. Contacts between Islam and the archipelago largely take place in the coastal zone. Mainly through the process of trade between the local population by the merchants Persians, Arabs, and India Gujarat.These contacts, in its development, allowing a process of cultural akulturisasi. Islam later emerged as a "competing" Hindu-Buddhist culture. 

M.C. Ricklefs from the Australian National University found that 2 processes the entry of Islam into the archipelago. First, the indigenous population is in contact with the religion of Islam and then menganutnya. Secondly, the foreigners (Arab, Indian, Chinese) who have converted to Islam to live permanently in a region of Indonesia, married with the indigenous population, and follow the local lifestyle in such a way that they've become the Javanese, Malay, or any other tribe .1 

Another theory about the entry of Islam into the archipelago from the Middle East proposed Supartono Widyosiswoyo.2 opinion, penetration can be divided into three waves, namely: Northern Line, Central Line, and the South Line. Third wave is based on the base of the spread of Islam into Indonesia. 

Northern Line is the entry of Islam from Persia and Mesopotamia. From there, Islam went to the east via the land of Afghanistan, Pakistan, Gujarat, then take the sea route to Indonesia. Through the Northern Line, Islam appeared in its new form of Sufism flow. In this flow, combined with a strengthening of Islamic personal experience in the approach itself against God. This rapid flow into and penetrate the new adherents of Islam in the archipelago. Aceh become one basis point spread of the Islamic North. 

Middle Path is the process of entry of Islam from the western part of the Jordan River valley and the eastern peninsula of Arabia (Hadramaut). From here Islam spread in its native relative, among them the Wahhabi stream. The effect is particularly striking in the region of West Sumatra. This may occur by reason of the sea journey to Hadramaut directly to the west coast of Sumatra island. 

South Line his roots are in Egyptian territory. At that Cairo is the center of modern Islamic religious broadcasting and Indonesia tertama gain influence in the religious organization called Muhammadiyah. Activities through this route mainly educational, proselytizing, and the opposition of heresy. 

The first firm clues about the emergence of Islam in Indonesia is the discovery of gravestone of Sultan Sulaiman bin Abdullah bin al-Basir who died in 608H or 1211 AD, at the funeral Lamreh, northern Sumatra. This grave marker also indicates a first Islamic kingdom in the archipelago. Sect that flourished in northern Sumatra early development of Islam, according to Ibn Battuta (Morocco traveler) is Shafi .3 

The more significant the influence of Islam in Indonesia is the establishment of the kingdom. Jean Gelman-Taylor noted in Ternate (Maluku) rulers converted to Islam in 1460.4 In Demak, Muslim rulers founded the city in 1470, while port cities in the surrounding areas such as Tuban, Gresik, and Cirebon followed in the 1500s. Around the year 1515 the port of Aceh has the Islamic rulers, followed by Madura in 1528, Gorontalo 1525, Butung 1542. Luwuk ruler in 1605, Tallo, and Gowa (South Sulawesi) to Islam and the 1611 South Sulawesi peninsula has been mastered the Islamic rulers. 

In its development, there was a process of mutual influence between Islam who has been berakulturisasi with the local culture with Islam as coming from the Middle East region. This is especially more prominent in the current regime to power that uses the Wahhabi Ibn Saud as the understanding has become Muslim. This paper will not touch how the conflict between the two typologies of Islam. Writing just over a number of influences that brought Islam into the cultures that flourished in Indonesia. 

Penetration Method 

The method of penetration of Islam into the archipelago quite varied. Supartono Widyosiswoyo mention at least there are 6 methods are: trade, marriage, mysticism, education, arts and Trade sosial.5 coating is a method of Islamic penetration of the most obvious. In this process, domestic and foreign traders meet and exchange effects. Foreign traders consists of Gujarati traders and the Middle East. They are met by the duke of coastal areas want to break away from the power of Majapahit.Some of these foreign traders settled in the area adjacent to the beach and spread their Islamic culture. 

Marriage is mostly done among traders as the nomads with the daughters of dukes. In marriage, the groom is usually proposed requirement sentence pronunciation creed as legitimate marriages. The children resulting from the marriage following the religion of their parents. 
Sufism is a religion that many interesting method among the natives of Indonesia. The method is tolerant and does not lead to cultural shock is enough to make "flooding" new Islamists. Sufism is not creating a position diametrically with Hindu-Buddhist culture or tradition of local indigenous people who previously held. Sufism figures such as Hamzah Fansuri, Syamsudin Pasai, or Wali Songo (including Sheikh Siti Jenar) take a key position in the method of spreading Islam through Sufism this. 

Education is one method of spreading Islam. Before Islam arrived in Indonesia is known as the basis for Buddhist education, especially college Nalendra in South Sumatra. Pecantrikan and Mandala is a "school" where the student of knowledge among the population of pre-Islamic. After Islam came in, and Mandala Pecantrikan role was taken over and given the charge of Islam into it. 

Art, no doubt, have a significant role in spreading Islam. Indonesian people are artists who have a high level of fame. Through this art, Islam is relatively more acceptable than other methods. Sunan Kalijaga for example, using puppets as a way of proselytizing. Sunan Bonang use gamelan to sing religious hymns. This does not include other figures who adapted the art of local crafts and Hindu-Buddhist to later be given charge of Islam. 

Social stratification eventually occupy key positions. The main problem in previous religion is social stratification based on caste. Although not too tight, Hinduism in Indonesia to some extent influenced by social castes such as Brahmins, Knights, Vaishya, Sudra and Paria. Primarily, ordinary people less "freedom" with this system thus resulting in a number of limitations. Then Islam came and did not recognize social stratification. Of course, the Indonesian people who want "free" to respond with a good religion.


Initially, the Islamic conversion occurred in the Malayan peninsula and surrounding areas. Following conversion, the population continues to use the Malay language. Malay was used as the language of commerce and are widely used in the western part of Indonesian archipelago. In accordance with the early development of Islam, Malay language has also incorporated a number of Arabic words into the structure of the language. In fact, Taylor noted about 15% of the vocabulary of the Malay language is an adaptation of the language Arab.6 other hand, a modification of the letters Pallawa into Arabic, and this became known as Jawi letters. 

As the rise of Islam as the dominant religion of the archipelago, there is also the language used adaptation of Islam. These include penetrated into the structure of the Saka calendar that became mainstream in the Hindu-Buddhist culture. For example, the names of the Islamic month later disinkretisasi by Sultan Agung (Mataram Islam) into the Saka calendar system. Saka lunar calendar based on the Sun (similar to the Gregorian), while the Islamic calendar based on the circulation of the Moon. 

Sultan Agung in 1625 decreed the Saka calendar changes into Javanese calendar is heavily influenced Islamic culture. The names of months used is 12, same as the Hijri calendar (the Islamic version). Similarly, the names of months refers to the Arabic language Sura month (Muharram), Sapar (Safar), Mulud (Rabi Beginning), Bakda Mulud (Rabi 'End), Jumadilawal (Rabi'ul), Jumadilakir (Jumadil End ), Rejeb (Rajab), Ruwah (Sha'ban), Pasa (of Ramadan), Sawal (Shawwal), Sela (Dzulqaidah), and Large (Dhu al-Hijjah). However, still follow the lunar calendar daily Saka Saka daily calendar so that time the most widely used of the population. 

Besides the issue of division of the month, the Arab language was extended to structure vocabulary. Same with a number of Sanskrit who eventually recognized as part of Indonesian, a number of Arabic words were finally entered into the structure of Indonesian, which include:

Arabic is even more significant in the 18th century and 19 in Indonesia, where communities of the archipelago over can read Arabic letters rather than Latin. In fact, in this Dutch colonial period, currency Malay written in Arabic letters, Arabic Pegon, Jawi or Arabic. Arabic script is often still found on the tombstone inscription. 

Pesantren. One form of Islam that are culturally more systemic is boarding. Originally he said the possibility of "Shastri" which means "those who know the scriptures of Hindu religion" from the Sanskrit. Or, "apprentice" of the Java language, meaning "those who follow his teacher to go anywhere. This phenomenon has been developing real boarding before Islam arrived. Pesantren when it became a place of education and teaching of Hinduism. After Islam came in, material and process of education in the schools taken over by Islam. 

Pesantren essentially a dormitory traditional Islamic education. Students live together and learn the religious sciences under the guidance of teachers, known as Kyai. Dormitory students are in boarding school complex where the clerics live. In other words, schools can be identified with the five main elements as follows: huts, mosques, students, clerics, and the books klasik.7 

Regarding the significant role of this pesantren, Harry J. Benda said that Indonesian-style Islamic history is the history of civilization memperbesarkan students and its influence on religious life, social, and economic in Indonesia.8 Through this pesantren, Islamic culture was developed and adapted to local culture that developed around it. 

Mosque. The mosque is a place of worship for the Islamic circles. Mosques formed early post-penetration of Islam into the archipelago is quite different from that developed in the Middle East. Among these are, the absence of the dome at the top of the building. The dome was replaced with a kind of "Meru" ie pyramid arrangement (usually three levels or five) similar to the Hindu buildings. Banten Masjid has five lingkat Meru, while the Holy Mosque and Demak 3 levels. But in general, form a square building walls are the same as that developed in culture induknya.9 

Then, in Indonesia are usually not built minarets. The role of the tower is replaced by a drum or percussion that marks the entry of prayer time. After a drum or percussion sounded, start prayer calls are made. However, there is also a tower that was built like in the Holy mosque and Demak. Uniquely, the form of towers similar to the Hindu temple. Although the present form of the mosque which was built in Indonesia has been completed tower, but the buildings far in the past mosque still retain its local shape. 

Graveyard. The tomb is the location of a person's body dikebumikannya post died. After the influence of Islam, the tomb of an effect is no longer embodied in the form of temples, but only just "cupola." Also, the body was interred at the site marked by a headstone. This grave marker is a form of application of Islam in Indonesia. Indonesia is not just a stone grave marker, but there are also carvings that marked the name of who is interred. 

Carving Art. The teachings of Islam (especially in Saudi Arabia) to ban the creation of animate beings in art. This prohibition was firmly held by the Islamic people of Indonesia. Instead, they actively create calligraphy and carving a "disguised". For example the form of leaves, flowers, hills, rocks, landscapes, and geometric lines. Included in it making Arabic calligraphy. Such carvings are in Mantingan Mosque near Jepara, Indonesia region which is famous for its art ukirnya. 

Literature. As the influence of Hindu-Buddhism, Islam also gives effect to the literary arts of the archipelago. Islamic-influenced literature is mainly grown in the area around the Straits of Malacca and Java. In the vicinity of the Straits of Malacca is a new development, while Java is a development of Hindu-Buddhist literature. 

Islamic writers perform a new composition-composition of Mahabharata, Ramayana, and Pancatantra. The result of this composition eg Tale of Five Pandava, Pandavas Tale of War Jaya, Hikayat Seri Rama, the Hikayat Maharaja Rawana, Hikayat Panjatanderan. In Java, there is literature that influenced long-Islamic literature such as Bratayuda, Fibre Rama, Arjuna Sasrabahu. 

In developing Malay sya'ir, Hamzah Fansuri composed mainly of mysticism (Sufism books that spread the problem.) Suluk who composed this Fansuri including sya'ir Boat, sya'ir The Bird Pingai, Asrar al-Arifin, and Syarab al Asyiqin.


Referensi :

M.C. Ricklefs, Sejarah Indonesia Modern 1200-2004, (Jakarta: Serambi, 2008)
Supartono Widyosiswoyo, Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia, (Jakarta: Universitas Trisakti, Cet.2, 2006)
Jean Gelman Taylor, Indonesia: Peoples and Histories, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003)
Murray Gordon O’Hanlon, Pesantren dan Dunia Pemikiran Santri: Problematika Metodologi Penelitian yang dihadapi Orang Asing, (Malang: Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang, 2006)
R. Soekmono, Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 3, (Yogyakarta: Kanisius, Cet.19, 2008)